Sunday, August 19, 2012

Zakat in Islam Status and Goals Syar'inya ((Islamic law)


Zakat in Islam Status and Goals Syar'inya ((Islamic law)




Zakat is one of the pillars of Islam. Zakat obligatory upon every Muslim who has been qualified. In addition to carrying out the command of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala, zakat pensyariatan goal is to help Muslims in need of aid and relief. Therefore, Islamic law gives great attention and provide a high position in the worship of this charity. Position of zakat in Islam are well known by Muslims by and large, but to affirm the importance of these issues need to be specified again zakat this problem in a more clear and explicit.

ZAKAT POSITION IN ISLAM
Position and the importance of zakat can be seen from the following:

A. Zakat is the third pillar of Islam and one of the great pillars of the building based on the hadith narrated from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet anhuma alaihi wa sallambersabda:

بني الإسلام على خمس: شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله وإقام الصلاة وإيتاء الزكاة وصوم رمضان وحج البيت لمن استطاع إليه سبيلأ

Islam is built on five cases: the creed that there is no lord of truth except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establish prayer and pay zakat, fasting Ramadan and pilgrimage to the House for anyone who is able [Agreed upon]

2. Allah Almighty give charity in order to reconcile orders pray at twenty-eight places in al-Qur `an. [1] It shows just how urgent and high position in Islam. Then the mention of the word prayer in many verses in al-Qur `an is sometimes juxtaposed with faith and sometimes by the charity. Sometimes all three good deeds is juxtaposed with a logical sequence. Faith is an act of the heart is the foundation, while the good deeds of the deeds of the body to be evidence of the truth of faith. The first act of charity is required of a believer is prayer which is badaniyah worship (worship with body movement) and zakat which is a treasure worship. Therefore, after an invitation to the prayer of faith and charity solicitation take precedence before the other pillars of Islam. This is based on the hadith of Ibn 'Abbas from the Prophet anhuma Allaah sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallamsaat he sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam sent Mu'adh to Yemen Allaah anhu, he said to him:

إنك تأتي قوما من أهل الكتاب فادعهم إلى شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله فإن هم أطاعوك لذلك فأعلمهم أن الله افترض عليهم خمس صلوات في كل يوم وليلة فإن هم أطاعوك لذلك فأعلمهم أن الله افترض عليهم صدقة تؤخذ من أغنيائهم فترد على فقرائهم

Surely, you will come to a people of the book, invite them to the creed that there is no lord of truth except Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah, if they comply with the invitation, then say to them that Allah requires that upon their prayers five times a day and night , if they comply with the invitation then tell them that Allah requires that charity which is taken from the rich from them and given to poor people of their [2]

The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallamhanya mentions prayer and zakat (the hadith above) because the amount of attention to them and they come first in preaching to sbelumnya other than Islam. Also, in order to follow the principle of at-tadarruj (gradual phase by phase) in explaining the obligations of Islam. [3]

And many more arguments from the Qur'an and al-hadith that shows a high position in the Islamic zakat.

Syar'i PURPOSE BEHIND THE LIABILITY ZAKAT [4]
Islam has set as obligatory zakat and make it one rukunnya and position them on a lofty perch again. Due to the implementation and enforcement purposes syar'i contain (maqasid shari'ah) is great and the good of the world and the hereafter, for both the rich and the poor. Among these goals are:

A. Prove themselves to servitude to Allah Almighty to execute his orders.
Many arguments are ordered so that the great duty of the Muslims, as Allah Almighty says in many verses, including:

وأقيموا الصلاة وآتوا الزكاة واركعوا مع الراكعين

And establish prayer, pay Zakat and ruku'lah with those who bow. '"[Al-Baqarah / 2:43]

Almighty Allah also give charity to explain that the devout nature of the Faithful. Allah Almighty says:

إنما يعمر مساجد الله من آمن بالله واليوم الآخر وأقام الصلاة وآتى الزكاة ولم يخش إلا الله فعسى أولئك أن يكونوا من المهتدين

Only the prosperity of the mosques of Allah are those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and establish salat and pay zakat and not afraid (to anyone) other than to Allah, then they're the ones who are expected to include among those who get a clue. [At-Tawbah / 9:18]

A believer devote themselves to Allah Almighty to execute his orders through the implementation of zakat obligations in accordance with the provisions of Shari'ah established.

Zakat is not taxes. Zakat is the obedience and worship to Allah Almighty made by a believer to win the reward and return on the side of Allah Almighty. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala says:

إن الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات وأقاموا الصلاة وآتوا الزكاة لهم أجرهم عند ربهم ولا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون

Those who believe and do good deeds, establish prayer and give charity, they get a reward from his Lord. there is no concern to them and not (also) they grieve. [Al-Baqarah / 2:277].

Also his word in the Koran, the letter an-Nisa 'verse 162, which means, "But those deep knowledge of them and the believers, they believe in what has been revealed to you ( al-Quran), and what was revealed before and those who establish prayers, practice regular charity, and who believe in Allah and the day then. The people that we would give them a great reward. "[An-Nisa '/ 4:162]

2. Ingratitude towards Allah give charity with wealth which Allah Almighty has bestowed as a gift to man. Allah Almighty says:

وإذ تأذن ربكم لئن شكرتم لأزيدنكم ولئن كفرتم إن عذابي لشديد

(Remember also), when Rabbmu declared, "Except ye be thankful, I would add (favors) unto you, and if ye deny (my favor), then indeed my very painful doom." [Ibrâhim/14: 7 ]

Ingratitude is the duty of a Muslim, with pleasure will last and grow. Imam as-Subki rahimahullah said, "Among the meaning contained in the zakat is ingratitude towards Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala. This applies generally to all taklief (expense) of religion, whether in relation to property or loss, because Allah Almighty has given pleasure to people and property on the body. They must be grateful for these favors, and favors body ingratitude towards the treasure. It's just that, even though we know it is an act of gratitude for favors or favors loss of property, but sometimes we are still undecided. Zakat in this category. "[5]

Paying zakat is a recognition of the grace of Allah, gratitude, and use these delights in the pleasure and obedience to Allah Almighty.

3.Menyucikan people who give charity from our sins. Allah Almighty says:

خذ من أموالهم صدقة تطهرهم وتزكيهم بها وصل عليهم إن صلاتك سكن لهم والله سميع عليم

Take alms from their wealth, the charity that you cleanse and purify them and pray for them. Surely prayer you that (a) peace for their souls. And Allah hears and knows. [At-Tawbah / 9:103].

Imam Nawawi may Allaah have mercy say, "Surely the obligation to pay zakat in the verse above wisdom associated with the cleaning of sins." [6]

There are also hadith which confirms the above meaning, as in the hadeeth of Allaah anhu Muadh bin Jabal that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallambersabda:

الصدقة تطفئ الخطيئة كما يطفئ الماء النار

Charity was a mistake, as water could extinguish the fire. "[HR. Ahmad 5/231 and at-Tirmidhi no. 2616 and classed as saheeh al-Albani in Saheeh Sunan at-Tirmidhi]

The verse above wisdom accumulated a lot of goals and syar'i contained in the obligation of zakat. The goals and wisdom of His wisdom is summed up in two words muhkam is, "With the charity that you cleanse and purify them."

4. Cleaning people who perform the prayer of the nature of the hunks. al-Kasani rahimahullah said, "Verily charity cleanse the soul of the person who fulfilled moral filth of sin and adorned with a generous and gracious nature. Also remove and stinginess stinginess, because people really like the character of property. Zakat can get people to be generous, and deliver training to fulfill the mandate of the rights to its owner. All that is contained in the word of Allah Almighty:

خذ من أموالهم صدقة تطهرهم وتزكيهم بها وصل عليهم

Take alms from their wealth, the charity that you cleanse and purify them and pray for them. [7]

Miser is despised and despicable disease. This makes human nature always seeks to realize his ambition, selfishness, love of life in the world and like to accumulate wealth. It will cultivate the attitude of the nature of a monopoly over all. About the nature of this, Allah Almighty says:

وكان الإنسان قتورا

And man is niggardly. [Al-Isra '/ 17:100]

Allah Almighty says:

وأحضرت الأنفس الشح

Although the man in his miserly temperament. [An-Nisa '/ 4:128]

Miserly nature is the biggest factor that led to humans is very dependent on the world and turn away from the afterlife. This trait was the cause of misery. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallambersabda:

تعس عبد الديناروعبد الدرهم وعبد الخميصة إن أعطي رضي وإن لم يعط سخط تعس وانتكس وإذا شيك فلا انتقش

Miserable servant dinar, dirham miserable slave, miserable servant khamishah! If he were then he'd be willing, if not then he's angry, miserable and fell on him, when he was pierced by a thorn he will not pull out. [8]

Love the world and property is one of the sources of sin and error. If someone is saved from him and protected from the miserly nature then he will succeed, as the word of Allah Almighty which means, "And who is kept out of his stinginess, they are the people who are successful." [Al-Hasyr/59: 9]

Allah Almighty says about the people griping miser again,

ولا يحسبن الذين يبخلون بما آتاهم الله من فضله هو خيرا لهم بل هو شر لهم سيطوقون ما بخلوا به يوم القيامة

And let not those who are miserly with wealth that Allah gave them from His grace thought that was good for their stinginess. stinginess is actually bad for them. property that they would be worn bakhilkan later in his neck on the Day of Resurrection. [Ali Imran / 3:180]

al-Fakhrurrazi rahimahullah said, "a deep love of the property can neglect the soul of the love of Allah and the preparation for the afterlife. Allah Almighty's wisdom demands AGR property owners who held out most of the property; So what's a crusher out of greed for wealth, not a deterrent so that people turn to the property in total and as a reminder that people are aware that human happiness can not be achieved with a busy accumulate wealth. But the happiness it will be realized by menginfakkan treasure for the sake of Allah Almighty. Obligation of Zakat is the right therapy and a necessity to eliminate the love of the world from the heart. Allah Almighty for wisdom requires that this noble charity. This is what is meant by his word, which means, "Take alms from their wealth, the charity that you cleanse and purify them and pray for them." That is clean and purify them from being exaggerated in the demanding world. "[9 ]

5. Dizakati clean property. Because the property is still no link with the rights of others means that there are dirty and muddy. If the rights of that person means property that has been accomplished has been cleared. This problem is hinted at by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallamsaat n explain the reasons why he should not be given to the charity of his family sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam? That is because zakat is a wealth of human excrement.

6. Cleanse the hearts of the poor from envy and jealousy towards the rich. When poor people see the people around him happy life with abundant wealth while he himself should bear the pain of poverty, this condition may be because the incidence of envy, jealousy, enmity and hatred in the hearts of the poor to the rich. These flavors would weaken the relationship between fellow Muslims, even potentially break the ties of brotherhood.

Envy, jealousy and hatred is a dangerous disease that threatened to destabilize society and its foundation. Islam seeks to cope with danger and with pensyariatan clarify the obligation of zakat. This is an effective practical method to overcome these diseases and to spread love and compassion among the members of the community. [10]

People who perform the prayer would be multiplied kindness and exalted rank. This includes an important goal syar'i. Allah says, which means, "Imagery (income incurred by) the people who spend their wealth in Allah's path is similar to a seed that grows seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains. Allâh double (reward) for whom He will. and Allah Almighty wide (his gift), All-knowing. "[al-Baqarah / 2:261]

7. Comfort and help the poor.
Al-Kasani rahimahullah said, "The payment of zakat, including assistance to the poor and help to people in need. Zakat makes people weak and strong to be able to implement monotheism and worship of Allah enjoined, as a means towards the implementation of the obligation is mandatory. "[11]

8. Dizakati asset growth.
It has been known that in the meaning of zakat in Arabic is growing. Then the Shari'a has determined the meaning of this and set them on the obligation of zakat. Allah Almighty says:

يمحق الله الربا ويربي الصدقات والله لا يحب كل كفار أثيم

Allah destroy Riba and foster charity and Allah loves not any man who has always remained in unbelief and sin. "(Al-Baqarah / 2:276). Which grow and multiply. [12]

Also his word, which means, "And whatever things you spend, then Allah will replace them and He is the giver of good luck is the best." (Saba `/ 34:39). That is Allah in the world to replace it with a semisalnya and in the afterlife with rewards and response. [13]

The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallambersabda:

ما من يوم يصبح العباد إلا وملكان ينزلان فيقول أحدهما اللهم أعط منفقا خلفا ويقول الآخر اللهم أعط ممسكا تلفا

There is not one day where people get in the morning unless there are two angels come down, one of them said, 'O Allah, give it to someone who berinfak replacement. "Others said,' O Allah give damnation to those who resist." [ Agreed upon]

The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallamjuga said:

ما نقصت صدقة من مال

Charity does not reduce the property. [Reported by Muslim]

9. Solidarity and social solidarity. Zakat is the main part of a series of social solidarity which is based on providing the basic needs of life. Life's basic necessities such as food, clothing, shelter (the board), unpaid debts, repatriate those who can not return to their country, freed slave and other forms of solidarity stipulated in Islam. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallambersabda:

مثل المؤمنين في توادهم وتراحمهم وتعاطفهم كمثل الجسد الواحد إذا اشتكى منه عضو تداعى له سائر الجسد بالسهر والحمى

The parable of the believers in mutual affection, love and protect one's body is such, that if one member is ill, the bodies of other members will come to feel it with no sleep and fever. [Reported by Muslim]

10. Islam grow the economy. Zakat has a significant positive effect in encouraging the movement of Islamic economy and develop it. Due to the growth of individual wealth zakat payers provide for the economic strength and progress of society. As also can block the accumulation of wealth zakat in the hands of the rich only. Almighty Allah says, which means, "To treasure it not circulate among the wealthy among you. What the Messenger to you, then accept it and what he forbids you, then leave. And fear Allâh. Verily Allah severe in punishment. "[al-Hasyr/59: 7]

The existence of money in the hands of most members of society encourage the owner to buy the necessities of life, thereby increasing the purchasing power of goods. This situation can increase the production of employment and unemployment kill. [14]

11. Da'wah to Allah Almighty. Among the fundamental purpose of zakat is to preach and spread the religion of Allah and the destitute, poor public needs to close. All this encourages them to more patient in accepting the religion and obey Allah Almighty.

Avail and so many other charity pensyariatan wisdom has not been submitted, but all of which have been delivered, above, are sufficient to show how important and useful lives of individuals and charity in Islamic societies.

Hopefully this can further motivate us to fulfill. Especially when you see the benefits that will arise from this charity pensyariatan.

[Copied from As-Sunnah magazine XV/1432/2011M 04-05/Tahun Edition. Publishers Foundation Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo-Solo Purwodadi Km.8 Selokaton Gondangrejo 57 183 Tel. 0271-858197 Fax 0271-858196]


Status of Zakat in Islam



By
Sheikh Abdullah bin Abdul al-Azhim Khalafi



Zakat is one of the pillars of Islam and one of kewajibanya. From Ibn 'Umar anhuma, he said that the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam said:

بني الإسلام على خمس, شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله, وإقام الصلاة, وإيتاء الزكاة, وحج البيت, وصيام رمضان.

"Islam is founded on five principles, which bear witness that no god has the right to be worshiped correctly but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establish regular prayer, issued alms, pilgrimage to the House, and fasting during Ramadan." [1]

And has been mentioned in tandem with a prayer in the eighty-two verses.

Prompts for Removing Zakat
Allah Ta'ala says:

خذ من أموالهم صدقة تطهرهم وتزكيهم بها وصل عليهم إن صلاتك سكن لهم والله سميع عليم

"Take alms of their wealth in order to cleanse and purify them, and berdo'alah to them. Indeed do'amu it (grow) the peace for their souls. Allah is Hearer, Knower. "[At-Tawbah: 103]

His words and also the Exalted:

وما آتيتم من ربا ليربو في أموال الناس فلا يربو عند الله وما آتيتم من زكاة تريدون وجه الله فأولئك هم المضعفون

"And something riba (optional) that you give to the human wealth increases, so do not grow in God's eyes. And what you give a charity that you intend to obtain the pleasure of Allah, then that's the people who double (reward). "[Ar-Rum: 39]

Narrated by Abu Huraira Allaah anhu, he said, "The Messenger sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

من تصدق بعدل تمرة من كسب طيب ولا يقبل الله إلا الطيب, فإن الله يتقبلها بيمينه ثم يربيها لصاحبها كما يربى أحدكم فلوه حتى تكون مثل الجبل.

"Those who give alms to the size of a palm seed from a lawful source, and God is not accepted except from good sources, then Allah accept alms with his right hand, and then develop it to the charity of God as one of ka-ian developing colt , until finally (reward) to be like a mountain. "[2]

Threat To Those Who Will not Eject Zakat
Allah Ta'ala says:

ولا يحسبن الذين يبخلون بما آتاهم الله من فضله هو خيرا لهم بل هو شر لهم سيطوقون ما بخلوا به يوم القيامة ولله ميراث السماوات والأرض والله بما تعملون خبير

"And let not those who are miserly with the treasures that God has given them of His bounty think that it is good for their stinginess. Stinginess is actually bad for them. Property that they would be worn bakhilkan later in his neck on the Day of Judgment. And to Allah belong all legacy (existing) in the heavens and the earth. And Allah knows what you do. "[Ali 'Imran: 180]

Narrated by Abu Huraira Allaah anhu, that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

من آتاه الله مالا فلم يؤد زكاته, مثل له يوم القيامة شجاعا أقرع له زبيبتان يطوقه يوم القيامة, ثم يأخذ بلهزمتيه - يعنى شدقيه - ثم يقول: أنا كنزك, أنا مالك, ثم تلا هذه الآية: ولا يحسبن الذين يبخلون بما آتاهم الله من فضله

"Whoever is given the gift of wealth by Allah and he does not give charity property, then later on the Day of Resurrection his wealth will be realized in the form of a snake that has the two can be worn around the neck and then her, then the two bones of the snake biting his lower jaw, and said , 'I was simpananmu treasure.' "Then the Prophet read the verse," And let not those who are miserly with the treasures that God has given them of His bounty think ... '"[3]

And also the word of God:

والذين يكنزون الذهب والفضة ولا ينفقونها في سبيل الله فبشرهم بعذاب أليم يوم يحمى عليها في نار جهنم فتكوى بها جباههم وجنوبهم وظهورهم هذا ما كنزتم لأنفسكم فذوقوا ما كنتم تكنزون

"... And those who keep the gold and silver, and not menafkahkannya in the way of God, Tell them that Allaah is very painful. On the day of the gold is heated pe-shelf inside Jahannam Hell, and burnt foreheads them, stomach and back (and said) to them, 'This is that you store your things for yourselves, so taste now (due to ) what you keep. '"[At-Tawbah: 34-35]

Narrated by Abu Huraira Allaah Anhua, he said that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

ما من صاحب ذهب ولا فضة لا يؤدى منها حقها إلا إذا
كان يوم القيامة, صفحت له صفائح من نار فأحمي عليها في نار جهنم فيكوى بها جنبه وجبينه وظهره, كلما بردت أعيدت له, في يوم كان مقداره خمسين ألف سنة, حتى يقضى بين العباد, فيرى سبيله إما إلى الجنة وإما إلى النار. قيل: يا رسول الله! فالإبل? قال: ولا صاحب إبل لايؤدى منها حقها, ومن حقها حلبها يوم وردها إلا إذا كان يوم القيامة بطح لها بقاع قرقر أوفر ماكانت لا يفقد منها فصيلا واحدا تطؤه بأخفافها وتعضه بأفواهها, كلما مرعليه أولاها رد عليه أخراها في يوم كان مقداره خمسين ألف سنة, حتى يقضى بين العباد فيرى سبيله إما إلى الجنة وإما إلى النار.

"It is not a property which has deposits of gold and silver, and he did not fulfill their zakat, then on the Day of Judgment will be laid for him from the metal plates that had been heated in Hell Jahannam Hell, then the slab is disetrikakan in the stomach, forehead and back. When cooled, the slab is heated again. This happened on the same day as the length of fifty thousand years, until the day of judgment among the servants, after which he will see his way, whether to heaven or to hell. Someone asked, 'Messenger of Allah, what about those who have camels?' He replied, 'So it is with those who have a camel and not fulfill its obligations, and includes an obligation that must be removed from the milk that is milked in the milking time, then laid later in the day of judgment for those field collected him all that he had from the animal, to which was weaned, and then all of the animals stepping on and took a bite, when the first has been passed by the next resume. This happened on the same day as the length of fifty thousand years, until the time the day of judgment among the servants, after which he will see his way, whether to heaven or to hell. '"[4]

The law of Zakat What Not Eject
Zakat is one of the obligations agreed upon by the scholars and has been known by all people, so he was one of the fundamental things in religion, which if any one of the Muslims who denies its obligation, then he has been out of Islam and killed in an infidel unless it is new to Islam, then he is forgiven due to ignorance of the law.

As for those who do not want to release it while still believing his duty, then he is guilty because of his attitude, but it is not out of Islam and a judge (ruler) should take it by force zakat [5] and half his property as a punishment for his actions. It is based on the hadith Bahz bin Hakim, from his father, from his grandfather, he said, "I've heard Ra-sulullah sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

في كل إبل سائمة, في كل أربعين ابنة لبون, لا يفرق إبل عن حسابها, من أعطاها مؤتجرا فله أجرها, ومن منعها فإنا آخذوها وشطر ماله عزمة من عزمات ربنا تبارك وتعالى, ولا يحل لآل محمد منها شئ.

"At every 40 camels are feeding off itself, a bintu labun zakat (camel boy who was entering the third year). Should not be separated from the camel's kumpulannya to reduce the computation of zakat. Whoever it out with the hope the reward, then he will get the reward, and anyone who refuses to remove it, then we'll take it along with half his property because it is one of the obligations of Allah. And zakat is not kosher to be eaten by the family of Muhammad at all. "[6]

If a nation refuses to release it when they still believed their obligations and they have the power to prohibit the pick of them, then they must be fought until they were out, based on the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam:

أمرت أن اقاتل الناس حتى يشهدوا أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله, ويقيموا الصلاة ويؤتوا الزكاة, فإذا فعلوا ذلك عصموا منى دماءهم وأموالهم إلا بحق الإسلام وحسابهم على الله.

"I am commanded to fight against people until they testify that none has the right to be worshiped with god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establish regular prayer and pay zakat. If they had done that, then they have to protect the blood and his property from me except for any right (law) of Islam, while the reckoning them back to God. "[7]

And from Abu Huraira Allaah anhu, he said, "When the Prophet had died, then in the caliphate of Abu Bakr, there are some Arab nations have disbelieved (it was Abu Bakr wanted to fight them), then 'Umar said to him,' How will you fight human? Though the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has said,' I was commanded to fight against people until they say there is no god has the right to be worshiped except Allah properly. And whoever said it, so he has to protect the property and his soul from me except for Islamic rights and reckoning them back to God. "Then Abu Bakr said, 'By Allah I will fight anyone who differentiate between prayer and charity, true charity is derived from property rights. By Allah, if they stop me from taking a young female goats when they were first handed it to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, surely I will fight them because their attitude is.' After that 'Umar said,' By Allah, after Allah enlarges the heart of Abu Bakr to fight them, then I believe the truth of this. '"[8]

Who Removing the Zakat payer?
Zakat is obligatory upon every Muslim independence, which has a property that has to nisabnya and have passed one year (haul), except zakat plant, he issued at the time of harvest if it has to nishabnya, as Allah says:

أفغير الله أبتغي حكما وهو الذي أنزل إليكم الكتاب مفصلا والذين آتيناهم الكتاب يعلمون أنه منزل من ربك بالحق فلا تكونن من الممترين

"And He it is who makes the gardens and are not berjunjung berjunjung, palm trees, the plants were a variety of fruit, olives and pomegranates similar (shape and color), and not the same (it seems). Eat of the fruit (a variety of it) when he was fruitful, and tu-naikanlah right at harvest day (with secreted zakat), and do not exaggerate. The truth is God does not love the extravagant. "[Al-An'am: 141]

[Copied from the book of Al-Sunnah wal Wajiiz fii Fiqhis Kitaabil Aziiz, author Azhim bin Abdul al-Khalafi Badawai, Indonesia Guide Fiqh Complete Edition, Translation Team Tashfiyah LIPIA - Jakarta, Ibn Kathir Reader Publishers, Printed in Ramadan 1428 - September 2007M]



The property zakat payer Issued




By
Sheikh Abdullah bin Abdul al-Azhim Khalafi



Treasure that must be issued zakat is gold and silver, of plants, fruits, livestock, and treasure.

First: Zakah Gold and Silver
And the size of the Mandatory nishab Issued
Nisab gold as much as 20 dinars, while the 200 silver dirhams, zakat both fortieth as much as that narrated from 'Ali ibn Abi Talib Allaah anhu, from the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam, he said:

إذا كانت لك مائتا درهم وحال عليها الحول ففيها خمسة دراهم وليس عليك شئ - يعنى في الذهب - حتى يكون لك عشرون دينارا, فإذا كانت لك عشرون دينار وحال
عليها الحول ففيها نصف دينار.

"If you had 200 dirhams and one year has elapsed, then the zakat as much as 5 dirhams. Zakat is not obligatory upon you (gold) unless you have a 20 dinar, if you have 20 dinars and one year has elapsed, then the zakat half a dinar. "[1]

Second: Zakah Jewelry
Zakat is obligatory jewelry, based on the generality of the verse and the hadith indicates the obligation of zakat, and there is no argument for those who exclude them from the generality of the verses and the hadiths. Besides, there are some special arguments that show will be jewelry zakat obligations, including:

Umm Salamah narrated from Allaah anhuma, he said, "I wear jewelry of silver, and then I asked the Messenger sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam," O Messenger of Allah, does this include property mistress? "He replied:

ما بلغ أن تؤدي زكاته فزكي فليس بكنز.

"Assets that have reached the limit for out zakat, zakat and then released, it no longer includes a treasure stash." [2]

Also from 'Aisha anhuma Allaah, he said, "One day the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam came to me and he saw in my hand there was a double-edged rings made of silver, then he said, 'What is this, O' Aisha? 'I answered , 'I deliberately make it so that I could be decorated for you O Messenger of Allah.' He sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said,' Do thou exert their zakat? 'I replied,' No or maasya God. 'Then he said,' It is enough to put you in in Hell. '"[3]

Third: Zakat Plants and Fruits
Allah Ta'ala says:

وهو الذي أنشأ جنات معروشات وغير معروشات والنخل والزرع مختلفا أكله والزيتون والرمان متشابها وغير متشابه كلوا من ثمره إذا أثمر وآتوا حقه يوم حصاده ولا تسرفوا إنه لا يحب المسرفين

"And He it is who makes the gardens and are not berjunjung berjunjung, palm trees, the plants were a variety of fruit, olives and pomegranates similar (shape and color), and not the same (it seems). Eat of the fruit (a variety of it) when she was fruitful and pay on the day of harvest rights (with the excluded zakat) and do not exaggerate. Allah loves not those who exaggerated. "[Al-An'am: 141]

Types of Plants and Fruits That Issued zakat payer:
Shall not issue unless the charity of the four species mentioned in the following hadith. From Abi Burdah, of Abu Musa and Mu'adh anhuma Allaah, "Verily the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam sent them to Yemen Yemen to teach people the science of religion, and he ordered them not to take alms except of four plant species, namely hinthah (wheat), sya'ir (grain), dates and dry grapes. "[4]

Nishabnya:
Zakat is obligatory requirement of plants and fruits is if it has to nishabnya, as explained in the following hadith.

From Abu Sa'id al-Khudri Allaah anhu, he said, "The Messenger sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

ليس فيما دون خمس ذود من الإبل صدقة, وليس فيما دون خمس أواق صدقة, وليس فيما دون خمسة أوسق صدقة.

"There is no zakat on camels whose numbers are less than 5 tail, also in silver which is less than 5 awaq [5], nor the dates of less than 5 ausuq." [6] [7]

The size of the Mandatory Issued:
It was narrated from Jabir that the Messenger sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, he said:

فيما سقت الأنهار والغيم العشور, وفيما سقي بالسانية نصف العشور.

"The (oil) are watered from the river and the rain there is the obligation of zakat tenth, and is watered by means of a twentieth." [8]

Also narrated from Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam has said:

فيما سقت السماء والعيون أو كان عثريا العشر, وفيما سقي بالنضح نصف العشر.

"Plants are watered with rain water or with water or with water from the soil suction, zakat tenth, and the plants are watered with human labor, zakat twentieth." [9]

Estimate (an-Nakhiil Khirshu) * Dates and Wine
It was narrated from Abu Humaid as-Sa'di, she recalled, "We went to war with the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam at the battle of Tabuk, when we arrived in the valley of Qura, there was a woman who was in his garden, and the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam said to the friend-friend, 'Estimate the number of fruit crops.' And the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam ausaq menaksirkannya ten, then he said to the woman,' Count how many crops you can. 'When we returned to the valley of Qura ( of Tabuk), he asked the female owner of the garden, 'How can you harvest from your garden?' She replied, 'Ten ausuq, as assessed by the Prophet.' "[10]

And of 'Aisha anhuma Allaah, he said, "Once the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam sent 'Abdullah bin Rawahah to estimate a date when it has started to mature before it is consumed, then he gave preference to the Jewish people if the estimated amount will be taken by amil zakat, or those that will be handed directly to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, that zakat is calculated before it is consumed and the dates sorted out. "[11]

Fourth: Zakat Livestock
Livestock must dizakati there are three types, namely camels, cows, and goats.

A. Zakat Camel
Nishabnya:
From Abu Sa'id al-Khudri Allaah anhu, narrated that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

ليس فيما دون خمس ذود من الإبل صدقة.

"There is no zakat on camels whose numbers are less than 5 tail." [12]

The amount of Zakat payer Issued:
Anas anhu of Allaah, Allaah anhu that Abu Bakr wrote to her when she was sent to al-Bahrain, among its contents: "Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem (in the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful). It is the obligation of zakat is obliged by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam and the Muslims are also commanded by God upon His Messenger, then whoever of the Muslims are asked to remove it the right way, then let them out. And whoever is asked more than what was required, so let him give it, that every 24 camels down must issue a goat, which is any multiple of five camels zakatnya a goat. If it reaches 25 to 35 camels, a bintu makhad zakat (a camel boy who was already stepping on the second year). If it reaches 36 to 45 camels, a bintu labun zakat (a camel boy who had stepped on the third year of age). If it reaches 46 to 60 camels, zakat form hiqqah tharuqatul jamal (camel of a child whose age has entered its fourth year and may marry a male camel). If it reaches 61 to 75 camels, a jaza'ah zakat (an old she-camel which has entered its fifth year). If it reaches 76 to 90 camels, the two tails bintu labun zakat. If it reaches 91 to 120 camels, two-tailed zakatnya hiqqah tharuqatul jamal. If you have more than 120 camels, then every 40 camels, camel zakat a kid who was into its third year. And every 50 head, a camel zakat old female who entered the fourth year. And for those who do not have camels but four of the tail, then it is not obligatory zakat unless the owner wishes, if it has reached five camels, the charity must issue the form of a goat. "[13]

Removing the form of Zakat payer BarangsiapaYyang Animals With Age Specific But He's Not Have
From Anas that Abu Bakr anhu Allaah Allaah anhu had written him a letter containing the obligation of zakat has been required Allah and His Messenger, among the contents of the letter, "Anyone who has been obliged to issue a number of camels, a she-camel which has entered the fifth year of age ( jaza'ah), but he did not have it and he has a camel who was entering the fourth year (hiqqah), then he should remove it added two goats if possible, or 20 dirhams. Any person who shall issue a camel boy who was into its fourth year, but he did not have it and he has an old camel entered its fifth year, then he should remove it added 20 dirhams or two goats. Any person who shall issue a camel boy who was into its fourth year, but he did not have it and he has an old camel entered the third year (bintu labun), then he should remove it added two goats or 20 dirhams. Any person who shall issue a camel boy who was into its third year, but he did not have it and he has a camel into the fourth year of his age, he should remove it added 20 dirhams or two goats. Any person who shall issue a camel boy who was into its third year, but he did not have it and he has an old camel entered the second year (bintu makhad), then he should remove it added 20 dirhams or two goats. "[14]

2. Zakat Cow
Nishab And Size (Number) The Mandatory Issued
Mu'adh bin Jabal narrated from Allaah anhu, he said, "The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has sent me to Yemen, and he ordered me to take alms of every 40 head of cattle, a cow was two years older (musinnah), and of every 30 head of cattle, a calf a year old (tabi ') a male or a female. "[15]

3. Zakat Goat
Nishab And Payer Amount Issued
From Anas that Abu Bakr had written him a letter containing the obligation of zakat has been required Allah and His Messenger, among the contents, "which was released Zakat goat feed themselves, if it has reached the number 40 to 120 head, a goat zakat. If more than 120 to 200 head, zakat two goats. If more than 200 to 300 left, zakat three goats. If more than 300 goats, then every 100 individuals zakatnya of goats. If the number of goats who feed themselves off the tail of less than 40, then it is not obligatory zakat unless the owner wants it. "[16]

Terms of obligatory Zakat Livestock
A. Has to nishabnya. And this has been explained clearly in the ahaadeeth that have been passed.

2. Has passed haul (one year), based on the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam:

لا زكاة في مال حتى يحول عليه الحول.

"It's not compulsory zakat on property that has not reached haulnya (one year)." [17]

3. Let the cattle are often grazed for over a year by finding the grass itself, based on the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, "Zakat is released goats foraging alone, if it has reached the number 40 to 120 head, zakatnya a goat ..." [ 18]

And also his saying:

في كل إبل سائمة في كل أربعين ابنة لبون.

"At every 40 camels are feeding off itself, zakatnya a camel boy who was entering the third year." [19]

Which type of Property should not be taken as Zakat
Of Ibn 'Abbas anhuma Allaah, that the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam sent Mu'adh to Yemen when he said:

وإياك وكرائم أموالهم.

"And thou shalt take their treasures are glorious (as zakat) ..." [20]

From Anas that Abu Bakr anhu Allaah Allaah anhu had written him a letter containing the obligation of zakat has been required Allah and His Messenger, which reads, "It should not be issued for the animal charity, animal elderly and disabled, and not bo-leh issued the male except if the owner chooses. "[21]

Law of Property Rights The Collected him two
If mixed property of two or more persons who shall be due and could not distinguish between property one of them with others, then they both took out a charity only if it has been mandatory for both of them spend zakat.

From Anas that Abu Bakr anhu Allaah Allaah anhu had written him a letter containing the obligation of zakat has been required Allah and His Messenger, some of which read, "It should not be collected between animals that separate and should not be separated between the animals livestock raised for fear of removing charity. Livestock collection of two people, at the time of zakat should be re-distributed equally among them. "[22]

Fifth: The Treasure of the Zakat (Rikaz)
Ar-Rikaz is a hidden treasure since the days of Jahiliyyah which is then removed without costly and laborious.

Zakat is obliged to immediately issue without any conditions should be up and haul nishab. It is based on the words of the Prophet generality sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam:

و في الركاز الخمس.

"Zakat is one-fifth rikaz." [23]

[Copied from the book of Al-Sunnah wal Wajiiz fii Fiqhis Kitaabil Aziiz, author Azhim bin Abdul al-Khalafi Badawai, Indonesia Guide Fiqh Complete Edition, Translation Team Tashfiyah LIPIA - Jakarta, Ibn Kathir Reader Publishers, Printed in Ramadan 1428 - September 2007M]



The Right to Receive Zakat group



By
Sheikh Abdullah bin Abdul al-Azhim Khalafi


He said:

إنما الصدقات للفقراء والمساكين والعاملين عليها والمؤلفة قلوبهم وفي الرقاب والغارمين وفي سبيل الله وابن السبيل فريضة من الله والله عليم حكيم

"Indeed, charity is charity, is just for poor people, poor people, officials, administrators zakat, the Muslim convert who persuaded him, for (memerdekaan) slaves, those who owe, to the way of God and the people who are in travel, as required by the provisions of God. And Allah is Knower, Wise. "[At-Tawbah: 60]

Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy say when interpreting this verse (II/364), "When Allah mentions rejection hypocrites and the Prophet j pencelaannya the charity division of the problem. He goes on to explain that the division of the set, explaining the law and that addressing this issue is God himself. He does not represent the divisions to one, then He is Sadaqah is to divide the factions mentioned in the paragraph above. "

Is Mandatory Sharing of Zakah Treasure Flat To All GolonganTersebut?
Ibn Kathir said, may Allaah have mercy, "The scholars disagree regarding the eight groups are eligible to receive zakat, zakat is obliged to hand over property to any group or may be submitted to it that allows some groups to be given kepadannya? In this issue there are two opinions:

First: Mandatory leave it up to all groups and this is the opinion of Imam Shafi'i, and the congregation of the clergy.

Second: It must give to all classes, may even share them with one class only and gives the Zakat to them although there are other groups. And this is the opinion of Imam Malik and some of the Salaf and Khalaf, among them 'Umar, Hudhayfah, Ibn' Abbas, Abul 'Aliyah, Sa'id bin Zubair and Maimun bin Mihran. Ibn Jarir said, 'This is the opinion of most scholars. "Based on this opinion, the purpose of the mention of these factions in this paragraph is to explain about the class are eligible to receive zakat is not to explain the obligation to share it to all classes."

Ibn Kathir rahimahullah back saying, "We will mention some of the hadith related to the eight groups are:

First: People Fakir
It was narrated from Ibn 'Amr anhuma Allaah, he said that the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam has said:

لا تحل الصدقة لغني ولا لذى مرة سوي.

"Zakat is not kosher is given to the rich and those who have the power to work." [1]

Of 'Ubaidullah bin' Adi ibn al-Khiyar that there are two people who had told him that they had been facing the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam to ask for alms to him. Then he watched them and he saw they were still strong, and he said:

إن شئتما أعطيتكما ولا حظ فيها لغني و لا لقوي مكتسب.

"If you want I'll give you alms, but no charity for the rich and powerful they are still working." [2]

Second: Poor People
From Abu Huraira Allaah anhu, that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has said:

ليس المسكين بهذا الطواف الذي يطوف على الناس, فترده اللقمة واللقمتان, والتمرة والتمرتان, قالوا فما المسكين يا رسول الله? قال: الذي لايجد غنى يغنيه, ولا يفطن له فيتصدق عليه, ولا يسأل الناس.

"It is not including those poor people around begging to man, then only a mouthful or two bribes of food and one or two dates he returned home." The Companions asked, "Then who is said to be poor, Messenger of Allah? "He replied," The poor are people who do not have something that could meet their needs. But no one knows the situation so anyone want to give alms, and he did not beg to man. "[3]

Third: Amil Zakat
They are the officers who collect zakat and interesting, they are entitled to receive Zakat as a reward for their work and they should not include the family of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has forbidden for them to eat a dekah, as narrated in Muslim Shahiih of' Abdul Muttalib ibn Rabi'a ibn al-Harith, that he and al-Fadl ibn al-'Abbas went to the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam to ask that they both serve as amil zakat, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

إن الصدقة لاتحل لمحمد ولا لآل محمد, إنما هي أوساخ الناس.

"Surely it is not lawful for the charity of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad, because he actually is human waste." [4]

Fourth: Mu-allaf (People who softened his heart)
They have several kinds. Zakat is given to them in Islam, as the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam gave Safwan bin Umayyad treasures from the spoils of war Hunain, and he fought in the state are still idolaters, he recalled, "the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam did not stop has consistently given me the spoils until finally he became a man I loved most, but before that he was the man I most hated. "[5]

And among them were deliberately given Zakat so that they are better and the stronger his Islamic faith in Islam, as has been done by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa Salla when Hunain war, he gave one hundred camels to a group of leaders of the ath-Thulaqa' (Quraish pagans are not fought in the conquest of Makkah time), and then he said:

إني لأعطي الرجل, وغيره أحب إلي منه, خشية أن يكبه الله على وجهه في نار جهنم.

'I give (property) to someone, but I loved the other more of it, only I fear God will put it in Hell. "[6]

In the ash-Shahiihain narrated from Abu Sa'eed, that 'Ali gave to the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam raw gold bullion from Yemen, then he distributes it to four people, al-Aqra 'bin Out,' Uyainah bin Badr, 'Alqamah bin 'Ulatsah and Zaid Al-Khair, and then he said, "I want to soften their hearts." [7]

Among them were given zakat with the intention that people like them come to Islam. There is also provided so that later on Zakat Zakat can gather from people who followed or to prevent the danger of some of the country against the Muslims.

Allahu knows best.

Is Zakat is given to people who softened his heart after the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam died?

Rahimahullah Ibn Kathir said, "In this matter there differences of opinion:

It was narrated from 'Umar,' Amir, Sya'bi and a number of other scholars, that they not be given Zakat after the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam died, because Islam and the Muslims have been victorious, and they have mastered some of the country, and has become subject to those many people.

And opinions of others say that they remain eligible to receive zakat, because the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam still give their zakat after the conquest of Makkah and Hawazin. And the case is sometimes needed so that Zakat is given to them. "

Fifth: Slaves
It was narrated from al-Hasan al-Basri, Muqatil bin Hayyan, 'Umar ibn' Abd al-'Aziz, Sa'id bin Jubair, an-Nakha'i, az-Zuhri and Ibn Zayd they argue that the slave is meant by al-Mukatab (slaves who had entered into an agreement with his master to pay a sum of money as ransom for him). It is also narrated from Abu Musa al-'Asyari. And this is the opinion of Imam Shafi'i al-Laitsi well. Said: Ibn 'Abbas and al-Hasan, "No why Zakat which will serve as a ransom for freeing a slave." And this is the madhhab Ahmad, Malik and Ishaq. It means that giving alms to the slaves are more general than just liberate al-Mukatab or buy a slave, then memerdekakannya. There are so many hadiths that explain about the reward the people who freed the slaves. And Allah will relieve them from the flames of Hell limbs of liberty of the slaves as a reward for his limbs merdekakan slaves, to the genitals to genitals [8]. This is all due to return from a practice suits their type of practice are:

وما تجزون إلا ما كنتم تعملون.

"And it's not you be rewarded except in accordance with the deeds you do."

Sixth: The person who owes
They have several types, there are the debts of others and have until the time of payment when he uses his money to pay it off so that his property out there who can not repay their debts, there are losers because of disobedience is done then he repented, this is what they are entitled to receive zakat .

The argument in this matter is the hadeeth Qabishah bin al-Hilali Mukhaariq, he said, "I'm for the debts of another person, then I went to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam to ask for his help, he said," Wait, if there is zakat we get we will deliver it to you. "Then he said:

يا قبيصة, إن المسألة لاتحل إلا لأحد ثلاثة: رجل تحمل حمالة فحلت له المسألة حتى يصيبها ثم يمسك, ورجل أصابته جائحة اجتاحت ماله فحلت له المسألة, حتى يصيب قواما من عيش أو قال سدادا من عيش, ورجل أصابته فاقة حتى يقوم ثلاثة من ذوى الحجا من قومه: لقد أصابت فلانا فاقة, فحلت له المسألة, حتى يصيب قواما من عيش أو قال سدادا من عيش, فما سواهن من المسألة يا قبيصة! سحتا يأكلها صاحبها سحتا.

"O Qabishah, actually begging not permitted except for one of three people, namely those who bear the debts of others, then he may beg until he pay it off, then he stopped to beg, misfortune befalls the person who spends his wealth , he may beg to get back alive or he said, something that can satisfy their needs, and those who replaced the misery of living up to three people with knowledge of his people (the doctors) said, 'The so and so has overwritten the misery of life.' He should to beg to get back alive or he said: Something that can satisfy their needs. The addition to these three groups, O Qabishah, it is unlawful to eat and they eat food that is unclean. '"[9]

Seventh: The Fight in the Way of Allah (FII Sabilillaah)
They were combatants who do not have the right of the treasury. As for Imam Ahmad, and Ishaq al-Hasan said that the people included in the fii sabilillaah pilgrimage, on the basis of a hadith.

I (author) said: "What they mean by the hadith is the hadith of Ibn 'Abbas, he said,' Messenger of Allah sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam wanted to go for Hajj, and there is a wife who said to him,' I Sertakanlah pilgrimage with the Prophet. 'Husband is replied, 'I do not have the property that I could use to membiayaimu hajj. "Then his wife said,' I Hajikanlah it with your camel. 'He said,' That is the camel that I use to fight in the way of Allah. 'Then the man came to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam and said,' Messenger of Allah, indeed my wife greets thee and he has asked me to menghajikannya with you, he said, 'I was with the Messenger of Allaah Hajikanlah' alaihi wa sallam. "Then I said, 'Truly I do not have property would use to get used-yaimu hajj. 'he said again,' Then I am with your camel hajikanlah it. 'I said to him,' That is the camel that I use to fight in Allah's way.'' Then the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said, 'Surely if thou menghajikan it with a camel is also included in sabilillaah fii.' "[10]

Eighth: Ibnus Sabil
He is a traveler who was in a country and not have something that could help him any way, then he is given a taste of Zakat could be used instead to return home, although he might have a little treasure. And this law applies to those who travel far from his country and there is nothing with him, so he provided a wealth of zakat can be inadequate for the provision of home leave. And their argument is a paragraph about the class are eligible to receive zakat, also what is self-wayatkan by Imam Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah from the hadith from Yazid ibn Aslam Ma'mar, from 'Ata' ibn Yasar from Abu Sa'id radi anhu, he said that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

لا تحل الصدقة لغني إلا خمسة: العامل عليها أو رجل اشتراها بماله أو غارم او غاز في سبيل الله أو مسكين تصدق عليه فأهدى منها لغني.

"Zakat is not permissible given to the rich than five kinds of amil zakat, or the person who bought it with his property or person or persons who owe the fight in Allah's way or the poor who receive alms, then he presented him to the rich." [11 ]

The words of Ibn Kathir is complete. "-Pent.

[Copied from the book of Al-Sunnah wal Wajiiz fii Fiqhis Kitaabil Aziiz, author Azhim bin Abdul al-Khalafi Badawai, Indonesia Guide Fiqh Complete Edition, Translation Team Tashfiyah LIPIA - Jakarta, Ibn Kathir Reader Publishers, Printed in Ramadan 1428 - September 2007M]
_______
Footnote
[1]. Saheeh: [Shahiih al-Jaami'ish Shaghiir (no. 7251)], Sunan at-Tirmidhi (II/81, no. 647), Sunan Abi Dawood (V/42, no. 1617), as was narrated from Abu Hurairah z : Ibni Sunan Majah (I/589, no. 1839), Sunan an-Nasa-i (V/99).
[2]. Saheeh: [Sunan Abi Dawud Shahiih (no. 1438)], Sunan Abi Dawood (V/41, no. 1617), Sunan an-Nasa-i (V/99).
[3]. Agreed upon: [Shahiih II/719 Muslim, no. 1039), and this is lafazhnya, Shahiih al-Bukhari (Fat-Hul Baari III/341, no. In 1479), Sunan an-Nasa-i (V/75), Sunan Abi Dawood (V/39, no. In 1615) .
[4]. Saheeh: [Shahiih al-Jaami'ish Shaghiir (no. 1664)], Shahiih Muslim (II/752, no. 1072), Sunan Abi Dawud (VII/205, no. In 2969), Sunan an-Nasa-i (V / 105). An-Nawawi said, "What is meant by ausaakhun unlucky, that charity is as a cleaner and pensuci for the property and their souls, as Allah says, 'Take alms of their wealth, the charity that you cleanse and purify them.' So, zakat The developer is like dirt. "(Muslim Shahiih Sharh an-Nawawi (VII/251), cet. Qurthubah).
[5]. Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Shahiih Muslim (no. 1588)], Shahiih Muslim (II/754, no. In 1072 (168)), Sunan Abi Dawud (VIII/205-208, no. In 2969), Sunan an-Nasa-i ( V / 105-106)
[6]. Agreed upon: al-Bukhari Shahiih (Fat-Hul Baari) (I/79, no. 27), Muslim Shahiih (I/132, no. 150), Sunan Abi Dawud (XII/440, no. 4659), Sunan an-Nasa-i (VIII/103).
[7]. Agreed upon: al-Bukhari Shahiih (Fat-Hul Baari) (VIII/67, no. 4351), Sha-Muslim hiih (II/741, no. 1064), Sunan Abi Dawud (XIII/109, no. 4738) .
[8]. Saheeh: [Shahiih al-Jaami'ish Shaghiir (no. 6051)]. Narrated by al-Tir-midzi of the hadith of Abu Huraira Allaah anhu said, "I have heard the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

من اعتق رقبة مؤمنة أعتق الله منه بكل عضو منه عضوا من النار حتى يعتق فرجه بفرجه.

"Those who free a slave who believe in Allah will free him (a slave limbs) every person who memerdekakannya limbs from the fire of Hell to his cock with his cock." (III/49, no. 1541).

[9]. Saheeh: [Mukhtasar Shahiih Muslim (no. 568)], Shahiih Muslim (II/722, no. In 1044), Sunan Abi Dawood (V/49, no. 1624), Sunan an-Nasa-i (V/96). And including zawil hija of a reasonable person and smart.
[10]. Hasan hadeeth: [Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood (no. 1753)], Sunan Abi Dawud (V/465, no. 19 740), Mustadrak al-Hakim (I/183), al-Bayhaqi (VI/164).
[11]. Saheeh: [Shahiih al-Jaami'ish Shaghiir (no. 725)], Sunan Abi Dawood (V/44, no. 1619), Sunan Majah Ibni (I/590, no. 1841).



Zakat nature are




By
Sheikh Abdullah bin Abdul al-Azhim Khalafi


The statute
Removing the tithes, obligatory upon every Muslim, according to the hadeeth of Ibn 'Umar radi anhuma, he said, "The Messenger sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam require tithes of a sha 'of dates or one sha' wheat on a free man and slave, male male and female, large and small from the Muslims. And he ordered them to be removed before the people prayed out ('Eid al-Fitr). "[1]

Wisdom Zakat Fitrah
Of Ibn 'Abbas anhuma Allaah, he said, "The Messenger sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam require tithes as a cleaner for people who are fasting from useless words and dirty, and as food for poor people. Whoever it out before prayer ('Id), then he received alms. And goods-who out after the prayer, then he became a regular ekah. "[2]

To Whom Zakat Fitrah It is prescribed?
Tithes obligatory upon a Muslim that is free, which has the advantages of the basic food for himself and his family during the day and night, then it shall issue him alms for himself and for the people under his responsibility, as wives, children, and slaves. As narrated from Ibn 'Umar anhuma, he said, "The Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam ordered to remove the small tithes of the children and adults, free people and slaves who give you a living." [3]

The size of Zakat Fitrah
Each person must issue a half-sha 'of qamh (wheat) or a sha' of dates or raisins or sya'ir (wheat), cheese or other food ingredients such as with the earlier one, such as rice, maize and others that include food principal.

The obligatory to spend half sha 'of qamh, then based on the hadith' Urwa bin Zubair Allaah anhu, that Asma 'bint Abi Bakr Radhiyalahu anhu issued alms to the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam, his family well for the free or slave, as many as two mud hinthah (wheat) or a sha 'dates with the size of the sha' and mud which they used to use at that time. [4]

While it is obligatory to issue a sha 'of foodstuffs other than qamh (wheat), based on the hadith of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri Allaah anhu, he said, "We always spend as much as a tithe sha' food or a sha 'sya'ir or one sha 'of dates or one sha' cheese or a sha 'raisins. "[5]

And most scholars prohibit issuing price of zakat fitrah, while Abu Hanifah allow this. This problem by an-Nawawi mentioned in the book Sharh Muslim Shahiih (VII/60).

I (author) said: "Abu Hanifah's opinion is not acceptable, because God will never forget, if the price of tithes could be sufficient, Allah and His Messenger will explain it. And obligatory upon every Muslim to understand the arguments in accordance with zhahirnya, without change and in ta'wil. "

Time out
It was narrated from Ibn 'Umar, he said, "The Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam ordered that (zakat fitrah) issued before the people prayed out ('Eid al-Fitr)." [6]

Amil zakat should leave it up to a faster one or two days from the day of 'Eid al-Fitr. It is related from Nafi 'he said, "Ibn' Umar gave zakat tithes to the committee, then they share a day or two days before the day of 'Eid al-Fitr." [7]

And forbidden mengakhirkan expenditure of time with no apparent reason. It was narrated from Ibn 'Abbas anhuma Allaah, he said, "The Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam require tithes as a cleaner for one who fasts from useless words and dirty as well as food for poor people. So whoever is out before prayer ('Id), then he received alms. And whoever is out after prayers, he became ordinary charity. "[8]

People who deserve it
Tithes should not be given except to the poor, based on the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam in the hadeeth of Ibn' Abbas anhuma Allaah, "And (tithes) as food for poor people." [9]

[Copied from the book of Al-Sunnah wal Wajiiz fii Fiqhis Kitaabil Aziiz, author Azhim bin Abdul al-Khalafi Badawai, Indonesia Guide Fiqh Complete Edition, Translation Team Tashfiyah LIPIA - Jakarta, Ibn Kathir Reader Publishers, Printed in Ramadan 1428 - September 2007M]




source: http://almanhaj.or.id/

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