Saturday, June 2, 2012

Mandatory Terms And How to pay (Eject) Zakat. '' And those who keep the gold and silver and do not menafkahkannya (spending) on ​​the path of Allah, then Tell them (that they will get) a painful punishment. On the day in gold and silver is heated in Hell, then the forehead, stomach and back were burned with him, (and said) to them: "This is that you store your things for yourselves, so taste now (due to) what you save it ". [At-Tawbah / 9:34-35]

Mandatory Terms And How to pay (Eject) Zakat. '' And those who keep the gold and silver and do not menafkahkannya (spending) on ​​the path of Allah, then Tell them (that they will get) a painful punishment. On the day in gold and silver is heated in Hell, then the forehead, stomach and back were burned with him, (and said) to them: "This is that you store your things for yourselves, so taste now (due to) what you save it ". [At-Tawbah / 9:34-35]

Cleric Abu Al Abbas Khalid bin Syamhudi

One of the pillars of Islam that a Muslim should be practiced, is to give charity. This belief is based Allaah commands in the Qur'an and Sunnah. In fact this is already a consensus (ijma ') that should not be violated.

As for the argument from the Qur'an, among them the word of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala:

خذ من أموالهم صدقة تطهرهم وتزكيهم بها

"Take alms from their wealth. With the zakat, you cleanse and purify them." [At Tawbah: 103].

And the Word:

وأقيموا الصلاة وءاتوا الزكاة

"And Establish the prayer and pay the poor". [Al Baqarah: 110].

Then the argument of the Sunnah, the Hadith narrated by Al Bukhari and Muslim from Ibn Abbas, that he said,

إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حين بعث معاذ بن جبل إلى اليمن قال إنك ستأتي قوما أهل كتاب فإذا جئتهم فادعهم إلى أن يشهدوا أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله فإن هم أطاعوا لك بذلك فأخبرهم أن الله قد فرض عليهم خمس صلوات في كل يوم وليلة فإن هم أطاعوا لك بذلك فأخبرهم أن الله قد فرض عليهم صدقة تؤخذ من أغنيائهم فترد على فقرائهم فإن هم أطاعوا لك بذلك فإياك وكرائم أموالهم واتق دعوة المظلوم فإنه ليس بينه وبين الله حجاب

"Verily, when the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam sent Muadh bin Jabal to Yemen, (he sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam) said," Surely you will come to a people of the Book. Therefore, if you find them, summon them to the creed, there is no right to be worshiped by haq, except Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. If they obey you in that, then teach them, that Allah made it compulsory upon them five prayers a day-night. If they have mentaatimu in it, then teach them, that Allah made it compulsory for them Sadaqah on their property, taken from their rich and distributed to the poor faqir of them. If they have mentaatimu in it, so be careful of their favorite treasures and bertaqwalah of the prayers of the dizhalimi, because there are no obstructions from it with God ". [1]

While the proposition of ijma ', the Muslims have agreed upon obligations, as has been dinukilkan by Ibn Qudama [2] and Ibn Rushd [3].

This obligation, of course, have the condition and how to be aware of the Muslims, so it can fulfill its obligation to pay zakat to the right and proper.

The terms of the necessity of removing zakat are as follows:

A. Islam.
A requirement of Islam zakat obligations issued by the argument above the hadeeth of Ibn Abbas. This hadith suggests the obligation of zakat, after they received two sentences creed and prayer obligations. This certainly shows that people who do not accept Islam is zakat obligation issue [4]

2. Independence.
Zakat is not required on the slave slave (who is not independent) the property has, since ownership is not perfect. Similarly, the slave who was in the release agreement (al mukatib), is not required regular charity of his property, because it deals with the need to free themselves from slavery. These needs are more urgent than free people who go bankrupt (gharim), so it is worth not required [5].

3. Rational and Baligh.
In case this is still disputed, that deals with problems of a child treasures charity and lunatics. The rajih (strong), children and lunatics are not required to issue a charity. However, the trustee who manages the property, are required to issue a zakat, as zakat obligations associated with property [6].

4. Have nishab.
Nishab meaning here, is the size or the lower limit set by syar'i (religion) to be issued a guideline to determine liability limits for the charity that has it, if it had been up at that size [7]. People who own property and have reached nishab or more, are required to issue a charity with a basic word of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala:

ويسئلونك ماذا ينفقون قل العفو كذلك يبين الله لكم الأيات لعلكم تتفكرون

"And they ask thee what they shall spend. Say:" The more of these purposes. "Thus Allah explains the verses to you lest you think". [Al Baqarah: 219].

The meaning of al afwu is a treasure that has exceeded demand. Therefore, Islam set nishab as a measure of wealth. [8]

TERMS nishab
The nishab terms is as follows:

A. Outside the property needs to be met by someone, such as: food, clothing, shelter, vehicles, and equipment used for livelihood.

2. Property which will dizakati been running for one year (haul) calculated from the day the ownership nishab [9] with the argument hadith the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam:

لا زكاة في مال حتى يحول عليه الحول

"There is no zakat on wealth, but that has exceeded one haul (one year)" [10].

Excluded from this, namely zakat and fruit farming. Because zakat agriculture and fruit when the harvest is taken. Similarly zakat treasure, which was taken when found.

For example, if a Muslim has 35 goats, so he is not obligated to tithe because nishab for goat tail 40. Then if the goats breed that reached 40 tails, then we begin to count one year after the perfect nishab [11].

Nishab, SIZE AND THE WAY OUT zakat.
A. Nishab Gold And Size zakat.
As many as 20 dinar gold nishab. Dinar dinars in question is Islam. The size of the dinar is equivalent to 4.25 grams of gold. So the 20 dinar was equivalent to 85 grams of pure gold. Thus it has been established by Shaykh Muhammad Al Uthaymeen [12] and Yusuf Qaradawi [13].

Nishab this proposition is the hadith of Ali ibn Abi Talib, he said: Verily the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said.

وليس عليك شيء يعني في الذهب حتى يكون لك عشرون دينارا فإذا كان لك عشرون دينارا وحال عليها الحول ففيها نصف دينار فما زاد فبحساب ذلك وليس في مال زكاة حتى يحول

"There is no obligation upon you nothing - that is the gold-to have 20 dinars. If you already have a 20 pence, and have passed one haul, there is to it (zakat) 1/2 dinar. Rest is calculated in accordance with it, and not on Zakat, but after a haul "[14].

Then from nishab was taken 2.5% or 1/40. And if more than nishab and has not reached the size of the increments, then taken and included with the initial nishab. Similarly, in the opinion of the rajih (strong).
For example: a person has 87 grams of gold are stored so if it has to haulnya the zakat obligatory upon it to issue 87/40 = 2.175 gram or money for it.

2. Nishab Silver And Size zakat.
The silver is 200 dirhams nishab. Equivalent to 595 grams, as a matter of Sheikh Muhammad Salih Al Uthaymeen in Syarhul Mumti '6/104 and 2.5% taken from the calculations same as gold.

3. Nishab Animal Husbandry and size of zakat.
The mandatory requirement of zakat on animals similar to the above and added one condition, that the animals grazed meadow of grass permissible rather than look for food.

وفي صدقة الغنم في سائمتها إذا كانت أربعين إلى عشرين ومائة شاة .....

"And in the charity goats grazing outside, otherwise up to 40 head to 120 head ..." [15]

While the size nishab and zakat is issued as follows:

A. Camel.
Nishab camel is five fish. More calculations are as follows:

Camel TOTAL amount spent
5-9 tails ------> The goats
10-14 tail -> Two goats
15-19 tail ---> Three goats
20-24 tail ---> Four goats
25-35 tail -> A tail bintu makhad
36-45 tail ---> A tail bintu labun
46-60 tail ---> The tail hiqqah
61-75 tail ---> The tail jadzah
76-90 tail ---> Two-tailed bintu labun
91-120 tail -> Two-tailed hiqqah
Tail 121 ------> Three Tails bintu labun
Tail 130 ------> One tailed and two tailed bintu hiqqah labun
Tail 140 ------> Two-tailed and two tailed bintu hiqqah labun
150 tail ------> Three Tails hiqqah
Tail 160 ------> Four tail bintu labun
Tail 170 ------> One tail and three tails bintu hiqqah labun
Tail 180 ------> Two-tailed and two tailed bintu hiqqah labun

A. Bintu makhad camel is a one-year-old.
2. Bintu labun is a two-year-old camel.
3. Hiqqah is the camel that had been aged three years.
4. Jadzah is the camel that was four years old.

2. COW.
Nishab cow is 30 individuals. If less than 30 individuals, then there is no zakat. Calculation as follows.

30-39 tail -> A tail tabi 'or tabi'ah
40-59 tail -> A tail musinah
60 head --------> Two-tailed tabi 'or two tabi'ah
70 tails --------> A tail tabi 'and one tail musinnah
80 tails --------> Two-tailed musinnah
90 tails --------> Three Tails tabi '
100 tail ------> Two-tailed tabi 'and a tail musinnah.

A. Tabi 'and is tabi'ah bulls and females aged one year.
2. Musinnah cows are two years old.
3. Every 30 cows tail zakat is one tabi 'and every 40 head of cattle, zakat is one musinnah tail.

Nishab goat tail is 40. Calculation is as follows:

40 tail ---------------> The goats
120 tail -------------> Two goats.
201-300 tail -----> Three goats.
More than 300 left-> Every 101 ewes.

Argument of zakat calculation cattle.

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
هذه فريضة الصدقة التي فرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على المسلمين والتي أمر الله بها رسوله فمن سئلها من المسلمين على وجهها فليعطها ومن سئل فوقها فلا يعط في أربع وعشرين من الإبل فما دونها من الغنم من كل خمس شاة إذا بلغت خمسا وعشرين إلى خمس وثلاثين ففيها بنت مخاض أنثى فإذا بلغت ستا وثلاثين إلى خمس وأربعين ففيها بنت لبون أنثى فإذا بلغت ستا وأربعين إلى ستين ففيها حقة طروقة الجمل فإذا بلغت واحدة وستين إلى خمس وسبعين ففيها جذعة فإذا بلغت يعني ستا وسبعين إلى تسعين ففيها بنتا لبون فإذا بلغت إحدى وتسعين إلى عشرين ومائة ففيها حقتان طروقتا الجمل فإذا زادت على عشرين ومائة ففي كل أربعين بنت لبون وفي كل خمسين حقة ومن لم يكن معه إلا أربع من الإبل فليس فيها صدقة إلا أن يشاء ربها فإذا بلغت خمسا من الإبل ففيها شاة وفي صدقة الغنم في سائمتها إذا كانت أربعين إلى عشرين ومائة شاة فإذا زادت على عشرين ومائة إلى مائتين شاتان فإذا زادت على مائتين إلى ثلاث مائة ففيها ثلاث شياه فإذا زادت على ثلاث مائة ففي كل مائة شاة فإذا كانت سائمة الرجل ناقصة من أربعين شاة واحدة فليس فيها صدقة إلا أن يشاء ربها وفي الرقة ربع العشر فإن لم تكن إلا تسعين ومائة فليس فيها شيء إلا أن يشاء ربها

"It is the obligation of zakat which commanded the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam and the Muslims are commanded by Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala Apostles: In each of 24 camels and a tail that is less than that (zakat) goats; in every 5 tail (camel) , (zakat) a goat. If it was up to 25 tails and 35 tails, then there is (zakat) bint makhad (female camel aged one year); if no, (then) be the Ibn labun (camel-old male two years). If it gets 36 to 45 tail, there is her daughter labun (two-year-old female camel). If up to 46 to 60 head, there hiqqah (female camel that has a perfect 3-year-old) who are ready to become impregnated by a male camel . If up to 61 to 75 there, jidzah (camel that has been aged 4 years). If up to 76 to 90 animals, there are 2 bintu labun. If up to 91 up to 120 animals, there are 2 hiqqah. If it is more than 120, then every 40 tails are bintu labin and every 50 hiqqah. And whoever has less than 4 heads of camels, then there is no zakat unless the owner chooses. And the charity goats grazing outside, otherwise up to 40 head to 120 head of goats there. And if more than 120 to 200 animals, there are two tails. If more than 200 to 300 left, (then) there are three tails, and if more than 300 left, then every 100 individuals there is one sheep. If the pastures, a person less than 40, a course then there is no zakat, except if the owner wishes "[16].

4. Zakat nishab Agricultural And Fruits And Size zakat.
Zakat crops and fruits disyari'atkan in Islam on the basis of word of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala:

وهو الذي أنشأ جنات معروشات وغير معروشات والنخل والزرع مختلفا أكله والزيتون والرمان متشابها وغير متشابه كلوا من ثمره إذآأثمر وءاتوا حقه يوم حصاده ولاتسرفوا إنه لايحب المسرفين

"And it was he who made the gardens and are not berjunjung berjunjung, palm trees, the plants were a variety of fruit, olives and pomegranates similar (shape and color), and not the same (it seems). Eat of the fruit (which bermaca like that) if he is to bear fruit, and pay on the day picking the right result (with the excluded zakat), and do not exaggerate. Allah loves not those exaggerated ". [Al-An `am: 141]

The nishabnya is 5 wasaq, based on the words of the Prophet n:

ليس فيما دون خمسة أوسق صدقة

"No less than five wasaq charity". [17]

One wasaq equivalent to 60 sha '[18]. While a sha 'is equivalent to 2.175 kg [19] or 3 kg.

Dose according to Li Daimah Lajnah Al Fatwa Wa Al Buhuts Al Islamiyah (Standing Committee of Fatwa and Research of Islamic Saudi Arabia). Based on the fatwas and an official charity in force in Saudi Arabia, then zakat agricultural output is 300 x 3 = 900 kg. The size of the excluded, when agriculture was obtained by means of irrigation (sprinkler plant use), then the zakat as much as 1/20 (5%). And if the farm is irrigated by rain (rain), then the zakat as much as 1/10 (10%). This is based on the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam:

فيما سقت الأنهار والغيم العشورو فيما سقي بالسانية نصف العشور

"In a watered by rivers and rain, then one-tenth (1/10), and a watered by irrigation (irrigation), the twentieth (1/20)". [20]

For example: a farmer managed to reap the harvest of 1000 kg. Then the size of the charity issued when the irrigation (watering device plant) is 1000 x 1/20 = 50 kg. When the rain, as many as 1000 x 1/10 = 100 kg.

5. Merchandise Zakat nishab zakat and size.
Pensyariatan charity merchandise is still disputed by scholars. In the opinion of the trade that required zakat, zakat nishab and size equal to the size of zakat nishab and gold.

The charity issued the terms of trade, together with the conditions that exist on the charity of others, and coupled with the other three conditions, namely:

a. Not have to be forced, as by purchasing, receiving gifts and the like.
b. Have the intention to trade.
c. Its value has to nishab. [21]

A trader must calculate the total value of merchandise with the original price (purchase), then combined with a net profit after deduction of debt.

For example: A merchant adds his wares at the end of the year for a total of Rp 200,000,000, - and a net profit of Rp 50,000,000, - Meanwhile, he has a debt of Rp 100,000,000, - So the calculation is as follows:

Capital - debt: Rp 200.000.000, - Rp 100,000,000, - = Rp 100.000.000, -
So the amount of Zakat is Rp 100,000,000, - + Rp 50.000.000, - = Rp 150.000.000, -
Zakat to be paid: Rp 150.000.000, - x 2.5% = USD 3.75 million, - [22]

6. Zakat nishab Treasure And The size of zakat.
The treasure is found, shall dizakati directly without requiring nishab and haul, according to the generality of words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam:

وفي الركاز الخمس

"In finding treasure there is a fifth zakat". [23]

In calculating nishab disagree. That is the problem, whether that be nishab for a year or only seen at the beginning and end of it?

An Imam Al-Nawawi said: "According to our mazdhab (Shafi'i), mazdhab Malik, Ahmad, and jumhur, is conditioned upon the property shall be issued, and zakat (the issuing zakat) based on the count of haul, such as: gold, silver and cattle-existence nishab on all haul (a year). So, if nishab been reduced to one as of the haul, then terputuslah (count) haul. And if perfect again after that, then start the calculation again, when the perfect nishab [24]. This is the opinion of the rajih, insha Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala.

For example nishab achieved in the month of Muharram 1423 H, then the month of Rajab in the year, his property was reduced from nishabnya. So terhapuslah nishabnya calculations. Later in the month of Ramadan (in the same year), their wealth increases until it reaches nishab. Then it starts again the first calculation of the Ramadan month. So forth until you reach a perfect year, and issued their zakat.

Thus this brief article, hopefully useful.

[Copied from As-Sunnah magazine edition, 07/Tahun VII/1424/2003M. Publishers Foundation Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo-Solo Purwodadi Km.8 Selokaton Gondangrejo 57 183 Tel. 0271-7574821]

How to Calculate Zakat Mal

Cleric Muhammad Arifin Badri MA

Praise be to Allah, the Exalted, prayers and greetings may always terlimpahkan to the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, his family and friends.

Enjoyment of property and all the world was created for the benefit of mankind, so that they are thankful to Allah Ta'ala and diligently serve him. Hence when the Prophet Ibrahim 'Alaihissallam, leaving his son, Prophet Ismail' Alaihissallam around building the Kaaba, he prayed:

ربنا إني أسكنت من ذريتي بواد غير ذي زرع عند بيتك المحرم ربنا ليقيموا الصلاة فاجعل أفئدة من الناس تهوي إليهم وارزقهم من الثمرات لعلهم يشكرون

Our Lord, indeed I have put some of my offspring in a valley that has no plants near your house is respected. Our Lord, (such) that they establish the prayer, then make the hearts of some people tend to them and give them good luck of fruits, hopefully they will be grateful. [Ibrâhîm/14: 37]

This is the wisdom of the revelation of good luck to mankind, so that when they are not grateful, then the entire property will be turned into a catastrophe and torment him.

والذين يكنزون الذهب والفضة ولا ينفقونها في سبيل الله فبشرهم بعذاب أليم يوم يحمى عليها في نار جهنم فتكوى بها جباههم وجنوبهم وظهورهم هذا ما كنزتم لأنفسكم فذوقوا ما كنتم تكنزون

... And those who keep the gold and silver and not in the way of Allah menafkahkannya, then Tell them (that they will get) a painful punishment. On the day in gold and silver is heated in Hell, then the forehead, stomach and back were burned with him, (and said) to them: "This is that you store your things for yourselves, so taste now (due to) what you save it ". [At-Tawbah / 9:34-35]

Rahimahullah Ibn Kathir said: "It states that every person who loves something, and more than obedience to Allah mendahulukannya, surely he would be tortured with it. And because the people who called in this paragraph would prefer to hoard their wealth rather than obey the pleasure of Allah, then they will be tortured by his wealth. As with Abu Lahab, assisted by his wife, he is incessantly hostile to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, then later on the Day of Judgment, she would turn around and torture herself go. Abu Lahab's wife in the neck will terikatkan of coir rope, with whom he gathered the wood burning in hell, then he told Abu Lahab menimpakannya. In this way, the torture of Abu Lahab was painful, because it is done by people in the world during his lifetime he loved most. So is the hoarder of wealth. Property which he loved very much, later on the Day of Resurrection to be the most pathetic. In Hell, their wealth will be heated and then used to burn the forehead, abdomen, and back them ". [1]

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani said: "And the wisdom of the return of all the property he once had, but the right of Allah (zakat), which shall be issued only in part, is because zakat must be paid together with all the property and can not be distinguished. And because the property is not excluded that zakat is not sacred treasure ". [2]

In short, zakat is a requirement of Allah Almighty to the people who receive the gift of property that the property be lawful for him.

Gold and silver are the main wealth of mankind. With it, other property assessed. Therefore, on this occasion I will discuss both nishab and convey the property to him, the paper money.

عن علي رضيالله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: إذا كانت لك مائتادرهم وحال عليهاالحول ففيهاخمسةدراهم وليس عليك شيءيعني في الذهب حتى يكون لك عشرون دينارافإذا كان لك عشرون ديناراوحال عليها الحؤل ففيها نصف دينار فما زاد فبحساب ذلك (رواه أبو داود و صححه ا لألباني

Of Friends' Ali radi 'anhu, he narrated from the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam, he said: "When you have two hundred dirhams and one year has elapsed (since you have one), then you are to her charity for five dirhams. And you are not obliged to pay zakat at all - that is, until golden alms you have twenty dinars. If you already have twenty dinars and one year has elapsed (since you have one), then you are subject to zakat to him half a dinar. And any excess of (nishab), then zakat is adapted to count ". [History of Abu Dawud, al-Bayhaqi, and classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albani]

عن أبي سعيد يقول: قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: ليس فيما دون خمس أواق صدقة (متفق عليه

Companions of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri radi 'anhu, he said: the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa sallam said: "There is no obligation of zakat on silver coins of less than five Uqiyah". [Agreed alaih]

In a hadith narrated by Abu Bakr radi 'anhu stated:

وفي الرقة ربع العشر (رواه البخاري

And in silver, are required for half dozen zakat (2.5%). [History of al-Bukhari]

Hadiths above are some arguments about the determination of gold and silver zakat, and from it, we can conclude several things:

A. Nishab is a minimum of Zakat. If someone has had a wealth of it, then he is obliged to issue a charity. Thus, the restriction is only needed by people nishab the wealth a bit, to see if he had been obliged to pay zakat or not. As for those who have the gold and silver in large quantities, it is no longer necessary to know the limits nishab, because it can be ascertained that he had been obliged to pay zakat. Therefore, the hadith history of Ali radi 'anhu above, the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam said: "And every excess of (nishab), then zakat is adapted to count".

2. Nishab gold, is 20 (twenty) dinars, or weighing 91 3/7 grams of gold [3]

3. Nishab silver, which is about 5 (five) 'uqiyah, or weighing 595 grams. [4]

4. Levels of zakat to be removed from the gold and silver when it has reached nishab is or 2.5%.

5. Keep in mind, that are used as constraints nishab gold and silver, gold and silver is pure (24 karat). [5] Thus, if a person has that is not pure gold, for example, 18 karat gold, it must be adapted to nishab nishabnya gold pure (24 karat), namely by comparing the sale price, or by asking a store of gold, or gold expert, about the gold content that he has. If levels of gold which he had already reached nishab, then he is obliged to pay zakat, and if not, then he is not obliged to pay zakat.

People who want to pay the zakat of gold or silver that he had, allowed to choose one of two ways.

Method One: Buying gold or silver for alms he should pay, then give it directly to their owners.

Second way: He paid with paper money price prevailing in the country a number of zakat (gold or silver) that must he paid at the time.

For example, if someone has a gold weighing 100 grams and has passed a haul, then he may issue a zakat in gold jewelery weighing 2.5 grams. As he also justified to spend money for the 2.5 grams of gold. When the market price of gold in USD. 200,000, then, he is obliged to pay an amount of Rp. 500.000, - to those entitled to receive zakat.

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-'Uthaymeen, may Allaah have mercy said: "I think, that it's okay for someone to pay zakat of gold and silver in the form of money for zakat. He does not need to extract the gold. That is, more beneficial to the recipient charity. Typically, the indigent, if you give a choice between receiving a gold necklace in the form or take it in the form of money, they prefer cash, because it is more useful to him. [6]

First Important Note.
Keep in mind, that the price of gold and silver on the market at any time subject to change, so that it can be when bought, each 1 gram for Rp 100,000, - and when it passed a year, gold prices have been changed to USD. 200.000, - or, conversely, at the time of purchase, 1 gram gold price of Rp. 200.000, - whereas when due to pay zakat, the price dropped to Rp. 100.000, -

At these events, which serve as guidelines in the payment of zakat is the price at the time of paying zakat, not the price at the time of purchase. [7]

In ancient times, humans use a variety of ways to trade and exchange goods, in order to meet their needs. At first, most use barter, namely the exchange of goods. However, when people realize that this is practical - especially if it requires large amounts of human effort to find other alternatives. Until finally, humans get that gold and silver as a precious item that can be used as a means of transactions between human beings, and as a tool to measure the value of an item.

Along the way, humans again feel the constraints with gold and silver, thus re-think to look for other items that can replace the role of gold and silver. Until paper money eventually was found. From here, the bills began to be used as a means of measuring the value of goods and transactions, replacing the dinar and dirham.

Based on this, then the scholars stated that the bill imposed by a country has a role and the law, as well as owned the dinar and dirham. As such, it shall apply the laws of usury and zakat [8]

If so, then when someone has a bill that reached the price of gold or silver nishab, he shall issue a zakat, which is 2.5% of the total money he had. And for more details, then I will try to explains this by the following example.

For example, one gram of 24 carat gold on the market sold for Rp.200.000, - and 1 gram of pure silver are sold for Rp. 25.000, - Thus, the zakat of gold is 91 3/7 x Rp. 200 000 = Rp. 18,285,715, - while nishab silver is 595 x Rp 25,000 = Rp. 14.875 million, -.

When Mr. Ahmad (for example), on 1 Jumadits-Thani 1428 H has a turnover of Rp. 50,000,000, - and the money he had tubes and for one year (current year 1429H) money has never been reduced from the minimum nishab above, then the current pack has been obliged to pay zakat Ahmad malnya. Total charity mall that he had to pay is:

USD. 50 million x 2.5% (or USD. 50.000.000/40) == Rp 1.250.000, -

In the case of Mr. Ahmad on top, gold or silver nishab limitation, in no way be considered, because the money he was clearly exceeding nishab both.

However, if the money Mr. Ahmad amounted to Rp. 16.000.000, - so at this moment we consider the limit nishab gold and silver. In the second case, the money Mr. Ahmad has reached nishab silver, namely Rp. 14.875 million, - but not mancapai nishab gold is Rp 18,285,715.

In such cases, the scholars said that Mr. Ahmad shall use nishab silver, and gold may not use nishab. Thus, Mr. Ahmad is obliged to pay zakat mal amount of:

USD. 16 million x 2.5% (16.000.000/40) = Rp. 400.000, -

Standing Committee for Fatwa Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under the leadership of Shaykh 'Abdul-' Aziz bin Baz, may Allaah have mercy on his decision no. 1881 states: "If the paper money a person has reached the limit nishab one of them (gold or silver), and has not reached the limit nishab the other, then the calculation shall be based on the nishab zakat has achieved it". [9]

Important Note Two.
From brief exposure above zakat money, it can be concluded that nishab and various provisions of the Zakat money is to follow nishab and conditions either of gold or silver. Therefore, the scholars said that nishab gold or silver nishab can be refined with money or vice versa [10]

Based on the above exposure, if one has a gold weighing 50 gram for Rp. 10,000,000, and it also had cash amounting to Rp. 13 million, while the price of 1 gram of gold is Rp. 200.000, - then he is obliged to pay zakat 2.5%. Although each of gold and cash that he had not yet reached nishab, but when both are combined, accounted for nishab. Thus the person is obliged to pay zakat amounting to Rp. 575.000, - was calculated as follows:

Rp 10,000,000, - Rp. 13 million, 2.5% x (23.000.000/40) = Rp. 575.000, -

At this day and age, some people hold a new charity called zakat profession, that is, when a civil servant or a company that has a huge salary, then he is required to spend 2.5% of salary or income. People who call this type of zakat reasoned, if a farmer who struggled to spend charity farm, then an employee whose job it is lighter and the result is greater than crop farmers, certainly more feasible to duty subject to zakat. Based on this qiyas, proponents of zakat profession requires an employee to spend 2.5% of their salaries as professional charity.

If this opinion be reviewed carefully, then we will get a lot of irregularities and fraud. Here is a glimpse of the inconsistencies and irregularities:

A. Zakat agricultural output is 1/10 (a tenth) yields when irrigation without the need for cost, and 1/20 (one-twenty) when irrigation costs. As for zakat profession, then zakat is 2.5% so this is kind Qiyas Qiyas very odd (odd) and perverted.

2. Salary is manifested in the form of money, the salary is more appropriate when judged by the law of zakat of gold and silver, because both as a means of buying and selling goods and standard of value.

3. Salary is not a new thing in human life in general and Muslims in particular. Both have existed since time immemorial. Here's some evidence to suggest that

Friends of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab radi' anhu had run a task from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Then he was rewarded by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam. At first, my friend '' Umar refused to pay it, but the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said to him: "If you were given something without you asking for, then eat (take) and sedekahkanlah". [Reported by Muslim]

After the Companions Abu Bakr radi 'anhu been inducted into the office of the caliphate, he went to the market to trade as his previous habits. On the way he met 'Umar bin al-Khattab radi' anhu, then 'Umar asked him: "Interlocking where are you?"
Abu Bakr replied: "Go to market". '
Umar again asked: "Although you have the task of menyibukanmu?"
Abu Bakr replied: "Good Heavens, this task will occupy myself of the support his family?"
Umar replied: "We'll give you secukupmu". [History of Ibn Sa'd and al-Bayhaqi]

Imam al-Bukhari also narrates the recognition Companions Abu Bakr radi 'anhu about it.

لقد علم قومي أن حرفتي لم تكن تعجزعن مؤونة أهلي وشغلت بأمر المسلمين فسيأكل آل أبي بكر من هذا المال ويحترف للمسلمين فيه

Indeed, my people have learned that my job may suffice ebutuhan family. As for now I'm busy with the affairs of the Muslims, Abu Bakr's family is now going to eat some of this treasure (treasure Baitul-Mal), while he will be responsible for managing their affairs. [Bukhari]

Narrations are all proven, that the salaries in the lives of Muslims is not new, however, for 14 centuries there has never been any scholars who memfatwakan the profession or pay zakat. This proves that there is no zakat profession. There is only zakat mal, which must meet two requirements, namely to achieve nishab property and has passed one haul (1 year).

Therefore, the Ahl-ul-ulema ijtihad that existed at the time we deny this opinion. One of them is Shaykh Bin Baz rahimahullah, he said: "Zakat in money wages, need to be specified, if the salary he had received, and passed one year and has reached a nishab, then it must dizakati. As if his salary is less than one nishab, or have not passed one year, he spent even before, it is not mandatory dizakati "[11]

Similar fatwas have been circulated by the Fatwa Committee of Permanent Members of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the following fatwa: "As is well known along, that among the treasures that must dizakati is gold and silver (currency). And in between the obligatory zakat requirement on gold and silver (money) is the passage of one year from the ownership of the money. Given this, the charity is required to pay an employee who successfully ditabungkan and has reached a nishab, good salary itself has reached a nishab or combined with other money and have passed one year. Not justified to equate salary with the earth, because the requirements of haul (one year elapsed since the possession of money) has been established in the proposition, so there should be no Qiyas. Under it all, the Zakat is obligatory on the employees' salary savings of up to one year has elapsed (haul) ". [12]

In closing this brief article, I invite readers to constantly reflect on the promise of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam follows:

ما نقصت صدقة من مال (رواه مسلم

Sadaqah is not it will reduce the property. [HR. Muslim]

I hope the above brief exposure can help the reader understand the methods of calculating zakat maal is right according to Islamic law. Allaah Almighty knows best-Shawâb bish.

[Copied from As-Sunnah magazine XII/1429/2008M 05/Tahun Edition. Publishers Foundation Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo-Solo Purwodadi Km.8 Selokaton Gondangrejo 57 183 Tel. 0271-858197 Fax 0271-858197]

Guidance Fitr Zakat

Muslim cleric Abu Isma'il al Atsari

Islam is great religion which has been blessed by Almighty God to man. With mercy, God has set a feast for two people each year. These two feasts that accompanied the two great pillars of Islam. 'Eid al-Adh-ha accompany the Hajj, and' Eid al-Fitr Ramadan fasting accompaniment.

For in doing fasting, Muslims often do things which can reduce the value of fasting, then the lesson, God Almighty mensyari'atkan Fitr Zakat to further refine his fast. Therefore, it is very important for us to understand the laws relating to zakat Fitr. Hopefully this brief discussion will be of help to the Muslims in performing this service.

Many people call it zakat nature are. The truth is Fitr Zakat or Sadaqah Fitr, as stated in the hadiths. Meaning or Sadaqah Fitr Fitr Zakat is an obligatory Sadaqah Fitr accomplished with cause (breaking) of the Ramadan fast. [1]

Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has explained the wisdom Fitr Zakat, as mentioned in the hadith:

عن ابن عباس قال فرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم زكاة الفطر طهرة للصائم من اللغو والرفث وطعمة للمساكين من أداها قبل الصلاة فهي زكاة مقبولة ومن أداها بعد الصلاة فهي صدقة من الصدقات

"From Ibn 'Abbas, he said: Messenger of Allah sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam has instructed Fitr alms to purify one who fasts from vain case and cruel words, and as food for poor people. Whoever fulfilled before prayer ('Id) , then it is an accepted zakat. And whoever fulfilled after praying ('Id), then it is a Sadaqah of Sadaqah-Sadaqah ". [2]

Fitr Zakat obligatory for every Muslim. Some scholars believe, the obligation of zakat has mansukh Fitr, but the arguments they use are not authentic and sharih (obviously). [3]

Imam Ibn al-Mundhir rahimahullah citing the Ijma 'ulama on this Fitr Zakat obligations. T He said, "It has all the experts agree that our knowledge of him that Sadaqah Fitr memorization required [4]. It then becomes a provision that Fitr Zakat is obligatory, not mansukh.

Fitr Zakat obligatory for every Muslim, rich or poor, can fulfill. Zakah Fitr compulsory so that the two terms: (1) Islam and (2) Capable.

The obligation upon every Muslim, whether free man or slave, male or female, child or adult, as this has been required by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam

عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال فرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم زكاة الفطر صاعا من تمر أو صاعا من شعير على العبد والحر والذكر والأنثى والصغير والكبير من المسلمين وأمر بها أن تؤدى قبل خروج الناس إلى الصلاة

"From Ibn 'Umar' anhu, he said:" The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has required as many as one Shaa Fitr Zakat' of dates or one Shaa 'wheat. Obligation was imposed to slaves, free men, men women, children, and parents from among the Muslims. And he ordered the Fitr charity is accomplished prior to the release of the people to pray ('Id) "[5].

While the terms capability, as Allah Almighty does not burden the servants except in accordance with its capabilities. Allah Almighty says:

لا يكلف الله نفسا إلا وسعها

"Allah does not burden a person but according to his ability". [Al-Baqarah / 2:286].

Measure of ability, according to scholars jumhur (Malikiyah, Syaifi'iyyah, and Hanabilah) is, someone has excess staple food for herself and those dependents, living for one night 'Id and the afternoon. Because such a person has had sufficient, as the hadith below:

عن سهل ابن الحنظلية قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ((من سأل وعنده ما يغنيه فإنما يستكثر من النار)) - وقال النفيلي في موضع آخر من جمر جهنم - فقالوا يا رسول الله وما يغنيه - وقال النفيلي في موضع آخر وما الغنى الذي لا تنبغي معه المسألة - قال: ((قدر ما يغديه ويعشيه)) - وقال النفيلي في موضع آخر أن يكون له شبع يوم وليلة أو ليلة ويوم -

"Of Ibn Sahl Hanzhaliyyah Allaah 'anhu, he said: Messenger of Allah sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam said:" Whoever begging, but he has what it insufficient, he indeed reproduce the Fire, "-an Nufaili said in another place "(multiply) from coal Jahannam" - Then the companions asked: "O Messenger of Allah, what is inadequate?"-an Nufaili says in another place "Is it not sufficient that a reasonable beg?" He said, "Size of the insufficient time in the morning and evening, "-an Nufaili said in another place:" He has a (food) are filling a day and a night "or" night and day ". [Reported by Abu Dawud, no. 1629. classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albani]. [6]

The Hanafiyah argues, is the measure of that ability, have the money or zakat to him and worth more than the needs of his residence. With the argument of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam:

لاصدقة إلا عن ظهر غنى

"There is no sadaqah except from surplus to needs". [7]

But this argument is weak, because:
A. Fitr Zakat obligation was not required as in the rich condition zakat maal.
2. Zakah Fitr is not increased with the increase in property value, such as kaffarah (redeemer error), so nishab not be sized.
3. Hadith they (Hanafiyah) can not be used as the argument, because we think that people who can not afford, he was not obliged to issue Fitr Zakat, and the measure of ability is as already described. And Allaah knows best. [8]

The scholars differed on the fetus, whether the parents are also required to issue Fitr alms for him?

Sheikh Salim bin 'Id al-Hilali and Sheik Ali bin Hasan al-Halabi al Atsari said: "Some scholars argue Fitr Zakat is obligatory on the fetus, but we do not know the proposition to him. As for the fetus, according to the language and customs (the term), not named child ". [9]

Shaykh Salih bin Ghanim as Sadlan-Imam Muhammad University Lecturer Su'ud-bin said: "Fitr Zakat obligatory upon every Muslim, whether free man or slave, male or female, child or parent, just a day of excess food and overnight. And issuing preferred Fitr alms to the fetus inside the mother's belly ". [10]

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al 'Uthaymeen, may Allaah have mercy said: "That seems to me, if we say favored removing the fetus Fitr Zakat, then Zakat is only issued to the fetus that had blown her spirit. While the spirit, not blown but after four months ".

He also said: "The argument liked issued Fitr alms to the fetus, was narrated from 'Uthman Allaah' anhu, that he issued Fitr alms to the fetus [11]. If not, then none of this is the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam. But we should realize, 'Uthman was one of the Khulafah-Rashidun, which we are commanded to follow the Sunnah of them ". [12]

From this description we know, disunahkan for parents to pay Zakah Fitr for the baby who has lived four months in the womb, wallahu knows best.

The scholars differed, whether each person is obligated to pay Zakat of Fitr itself, so that a wife is also obliged to pay zakat for himself, or a husband to bear the entire family? [13]

The first opinion.
Husband is obliged to pay zakat Fitr for himself and those he had undertaken. This is the opinion of the majority of scholars. With the proposition, that the husband is obligated to pay a living wife and family, he also paid for their Fitr Zakat. Also based on the hadith:

عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال: أمر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بصدقة الفطر عن الصغير والكبير والحر والعبد ممن تمونون

"From Ibn 'Umar' anhu, he said:" The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has ordered Sadaqah Fitr from small children and the elderly, a free man and slave, of the people that you bear. "[Hasan hadeeth. See Irwa -ul Ghalil, no. 835]. [14]

Second opinion.
Some scholars (Abu Hanifah, Sufyan ath Tsauri, Ibn Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al 'Uthaymeen) argues, a wife to pay zakat Fitr itself, with the argument:

A. Hadeeth of Ibn 'Umar:

عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال فرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم زكاة الفطر صاعا من تمر أو صاعا من شعير على العبد والحر والذكر والأنثى والصغير والكبير من المسلمين

"From Ibn 'Umar' anhu, he said:" The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has required as many as one Shaa Fitr Zakat' of dates or one Shaa 'wheat. Obligation was imposed to slaves, free men, men, women, children, and parents of the Muslim community ". [Bukhari, no. 1503; Muslim, no. 984].

This shows, that the zakat Fitr is a duty every man to himself. And in this hadeeth mentioned "women", so he is obliged to pay zakat Fitr for himself, either already married or not married.

But this opinion is disputed: that mentioned "woman", does not mean he is obliged to pay zakat nature are for him. Because in the hadith, also mentioned slaves and children. In this issue is understandable, if both are covered by the master and his parents. Similarly, the friends Fitr pay zakat to the fetus in the mother's abdomen. Moreover, there is the hadith that explains, that the husband pay the zakat Fitr to those he had undertaken.

2. The origin, the obligation of worship for each person, not borne by others. He said:

"A sinner will not bear the sins of others". [Al-An'am / 6: 164].

So if Fitr Zakat obligatory on a person and those he had undertaken, means a person bear the burden (sins) shall bear the burden (sins) of others.

But this opinion is indisputable: It's like a husband who bear the living people he had undertaken. And after preaching the hadith it is valid, it must be accepted, must not be opposed to the verses of the Qur `an, or the other. From this description it is clear, that the opinion jumhur stronger. And Allaah knows best.

The form
Issued to Fitr Zakat is the generality of the staple food in the area occupied by those who tithe. Not limited to the types of food mentioned in the hadiths. Thus the most correct opinion of the scholars, God willing. This opinion was selected by the Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah may Allaah have mercy.

He asked for alms rahimahullah Fitr: "Is issued in the form of dried dates, dried grapes, bur (a type of wheat), sya'ir (a type of wheat), or flour?"

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah may Allaah have mercy say: "Praise be to Allaah. If a resident of a city using one of these types as a staple food, then no doubt, they should remove from Fitr Zakat (types) of food staple (it). Can they remove the staple food of other than that? If their staple food such as rice and dukhn (a type of wheat), whether they are obliged to issue a hinthah (a type of wheat) or sya'ir (a type of wheat), or enough for them (remove) rice, dukhn, or something? (In this issue), has been known for the famous dispute, and both are narrated from Imam Ahmad:

First. Not issued (for charity Fitr) except (by type) mentioned in the hadith.

Second. Removing the staple food, although not excluding from these types (which is mentioned in the hadith). This is the opinion of the majority of scholars such as Imam Shafi'i, and others-and this is more true of those opinions (ulama). Because the origin, in all of Sadaqah is obligated to help poor people, as Allah the Exalted: "That is from the regular food you give to your family. -Al Maidah / 5 verse 89 - ". [15]

The size of the zakat is one nature are per person sha 'dry dates, or dried grapes, or wheat, or cheese, or a substitute staple foods such as rice, corn, or other.

عن أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه قال كنا نخرج في عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم الفطر صاعا من طعام وقال أبو سعيد وكان طعامنا الشعير والزبيب والأقط والتمر

"From Abu Sa'id Radhiyalahu 'anhu, he said:" We were at the time of the Prophet on the day of Fitr n sha issued a' food '. Abu Sa'id said, "Our food is the first wheat, dry wine, cheese, and dates dry. "[Bukhari, no. 1510.

The scholars differed about hinthah [16], whether the sha 'like the other, or half-sha'? And the correct opinion is the second, a half sha '.

قال عبد الله بن ثعلبة بن صعير العذري خطب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الناس قبل الفطر بيومين فقال أدوا صاعا من بر أو قمح بين اثنين أو صاعا من تمر أو صاعا من شعير على كل حر وعبد وصغير وكبير

"Abdullah bin Tsa'labah Shu'air bin al 'Udzri said: Two days before (' Eid) Fitr, the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam berkhutbah to the crowd, he said:" exert a sha' burr or qumh (wheat species good) for two, or a sha 'dry dates, or a sha' sya'ir (regular type of wheat), independent of any one person, slaves, children, and parents "[17].

Size sha 'policies are sha' the people of Medina the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam. One sha 'is a four mud. One mud is full of two normal hands. As for the size of the weight, then there is a difference, because the origin sha 'is a measure to measure the size, and then transferred to the scales to measure weight to the estimates and calculations. There are some details on this issue, as follows:

A. One sha '= 2.157 kg (Saheeh Sunnah Fiqh, 2/83).
2. One sha '= 3 kg (Taisirul Fiqh, 74; Taudhihul Ahkam, 3/74).
3. One sha '= 2.40 g of wheat which is nice. (Syarhul Mumti ', 6/176).

Shaykh al-'Uthaymeen, may Allaah have mercy say, "The scholars have tried with a nice grain. They've done the research properly. And I have done the work, a sha' to 2 kg 40 gr of wheat which is nice. It is understood that the objects differ- different light and weight. If the object is heavy, we are cautious and add weights. If it was light, then we (should) menyedikitkan ". [Syarhul Mumti ', 6/176-177].

From this description, the description of Shaykh al-'Uthaymeen, it should be used as a reference. Because the staple food in our country-generally-are rice, then we spend Fitr Zakat by as much as 2 ½ kg of rice, wallahu knows best.

Have been described, issued in the form of zakat Fitr staple food of people who tithe the place to live. Therefore, it should not be substituted by other goods valued at him, or with money!

Imam Nawawi rahimahullah said: "Most of the jurists did not allow removing the value, but Abu Hanifah allow it". [Sharh Muslim].

Shaykh Abdul 'Azhim al Badawi said: "Abu Hanifah rahimahullah opinion is rejected because the real" And remember thy Lord "- Maryam/18 verse 64 -, then if the value is sufficient, certainly has been described by Allah and His Messenger. So who is obliged to stop at Zahir texts with no change and interpret the meaning of the other ". [Al Wajiiz, 230-231]. [18]

Sheikh Abu Bakr Jabir al Jazairi said, "shall be excluded from Fitr Zakat food types (principal, Pen), and not replace it with money, except for emergency (forced). Therefore, there is no argument (which shows) the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam replace Fitr Zakat money. Even though not dinukilkan of friends, out with the money "[19].

Spend time Fitr Zakat, divided into several types:
A. Time required. That is, the time when a baby is born, or after a person enters Islam, it is not obliged to pay Zakah Fitr. And if a person dies before, it is not obliged to pay Zakah Fitr. Jumhur scholars have argued, the time required to pay is, the sunset on the last day of Ramadan. However Hanafiyah argues, is the dawn of time required to 'Eid al-Fitr. [20]

2. Afdhal time. The point is, the best time to pay zakat Fitr, the dawn of day 'Id, to deal four schools. [21]

3. Time allowed. That is, when a person is permissible to pay Zakah Fitr baby. About the last time, the scholars agree that zakat is paid after the Fitr prayer 'Id, considered not as a charity berniali Fitr, as mentioned in a hadith:

عن ابن عباس قال فرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم زكاة الفطر طهرة للصائم من اللغو والرفث وطعمة للمساكين من أداها قبل الصلاة فهي زكاة مقبولة ومن أداها بعد الصلاة فهي صدقة من الصدقات

"From Ibn 'Abbas Allaah' anhu, he said:" The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has instructed Fitr alms to purify those who fast from the case in vain and cruel words, and as food for poor people. Whoever fulfilled before prayer ('Id), then it is an accepted zakat. And whoever fulfilled after praying ('Id), then it is one of sadaqah, sadaqah Sadaqah. "[Reported by Abu Dawud, no. 1609; Ibn Majah, no. 1827, etc.].

Do be paid before the day of 'Id? In this issue, there are some opinions: [22]
- Abu Hanifah rahimahullah argues: "It should be forward a year or two years".
- Rahimahullah Malik argued: "There should be developed".
- Syafi'iyah argues: "It should be developed since the beginning of the month of Ramadan".
- Hanabilah: "Perhaps a day or two days before the 'Id'.

This last opinion held reasonable, because according to the deeds of Ibn 'Umar' anhuma, while he is among friends Fitr Zakat obligations are narrated from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallm. Nafi 'said:

وكان ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما يعطيها الذين يقبلونها وكانوا يعطون قبل الفطر بيوم أو يومين

'And Ibn' Umar used to give Zakah Fitr to those who receive it, they were given a day or two days before Fitr ". [Bukhari, no. 1511; Muslim, no. 986].

The scholars differed about the person entitled to receive Zakah Fitr.
A. Eight groups as zakat maal.
This is an opinion Hanafiyah, famous Syafi'iyyah opinion, and opinion Hanabilah. [23]

2. Eight classes of recipients of zakat maal, but preferred the poor.
Ash Syaukani rahimahullah said, "The place where division is the division of Sadaqah Fitr Zakat (maal), because the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam called it a charity. As word of his sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam 'He who pay before the prayer, then that is a charity that received , 'and the words of Ibn Umar that the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam ordered Fitr Zakat. two hadith that has been described. But people rightly take precedence faqir, because the commands of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam to meet them on the day (feast) is. Then if it still more, share with others. " [24]

The words of this rahimahullah Syaukani ash, also said Hasan Khan al Qinauji Shiqdiq rahimahullah.

Sheikh Abu Bakr Jabir al Jazairi said, "This place is a division of Sadaqah Fitr, such as where the distribution of zakat, zakat is common. However, the faqir and poor people have more right to it than the other parts. Under the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam 'Cukupilah them from begging on the day (feast) of this!' So Fitr alms are not given to persons other than faqir, unless they do not exist, or they kefaikran light, or the tremendous demand for parts other than those entitled to receive zakat ". [26]

3. Only the poor.
Malikiyah argues, Sadaqah Fitr is given to the free, the Muslims, the faqir. As for more, (like) people who take care, or care of, it was not given. Also not given to the mujahid (one who fights), do not buy a tool (the war) for him, not given to the mu'allaf, not given to Ibn sabil, unless he is poor in its place, he was given because of its poor, but he did not what a pass was given to his city, did not buy slaves from the Fitr charity, and not given to people gharim. [27]

This opinion was also selected by the Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullah Majmu as mentioned in Fatawa (25/71-78), Ibn al-Qayyim in Zadul Ma'ad (2/44), Shaykh Abd al-'Abdullah bin Azhim in Wajiz al (page 231), and Sheikh Salim bin 'Id al-Hilali and Sheik Ali bin Hasan al-Halabi al Atsari in the nature of shaum Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam fi Ramadan [pages 105-106].

The rajih (strong), God willing, this latter opinion, with reasons as follows:

A. Words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam about Fitr Zakat:

وطعمة للمساكين

"And as a food for poor people". [Reported by Abu Dawud, no. 1609: Ibn Majah, no. 1827; and others].

2. Including the type kaffarah Fitr Zakat (redeemer error, sin), so that his form of food given to the person entitled to, namely the poor, wallahu knows best.
3. The tithes of the opinion that states for the eight groups as zakat mal, as Zakat or Sadaqah Fitr Fitr including the generality of the word of Allah Almighty:

"(Zakat-alms Indeed, it is just for poor people, poor people, officials, administrators zakat, the mu'allaf who persuaded him, for (freed) slaves, those who owe to Allah and to those who are on their way., at Tawbah / 9, paragraph 60 -), then the opinion is denied, that this paragraph specifically for zakat mal, viewed from a series of verses before and after. [28]

Then too, there were no scholars who hold to the generality of this paragraph, so that all eight types of Sadaqah is just right in this group. If the distribution of Zakah Fitr as zakat mal, should be divided to eight groups, the share of each class will be a little bit. Not be sufficient for gharim (those who bear the debt), or traveler, or fii sabilillah, or other. So it is not in accordance with the wisdom disyari'atkannya charity. Allaah 'nature.

Including the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam, namely the people who handle Zakah Fitr. Here is an explanation of the details that show this. [30]
A. The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has been representing Abu Hurairah keep Fitr Zakat. [Bukhari, no. 3275].
2. Ibn 'Umar' anhu used to give Zakah Fitr to those who receive it [Bukhari, no. 1511; Muslim, no. 986]. They are officials appointed by the imam, or leader. But they do not get the Zakah Fitr with care because of this, except for the poor, as we have explained above.

So little discussion about Fitr Zakat. May be useful to us. And Allaah knows best.

Maraji ':
A. Shaum nature of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam fi Ramadan, pp: 101-107, Sheikh Salim bin' Id al-Hilali and Sheik Ali bin Hasan al-Halabi al Atsari.
2. Fiqhis saheeh Sunnah, 2/79-85, Abu Malik ibn as Sayyid Kamal Salim.
3. Ta'liqat Radhiyyah 'ala al Raudhah an Nadiyah, 1/548-555, Shidiq Imam Hasan Khan, ta'liq: Shaykh al-Albani.
4. Wajiz fii al-Sunnah wal Fiqhis Kitabil 'Aziz, pages 229-231.
5. Muslim Minhajul, 230-232, Shaykh Abu Bakr al Jazairi.
6. Jami 'Ahkamin Nisa', 5/169-170, Shaykh Mustafa al-'Adawi.
7. Syarhul Mumti ', 6/155-156, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al' Uthaymeen, Publisher Muassasah Aasaam, Cet. I, Th. 1416H/1996M.
8. Majmu 'Fatawa, 25/68-69, Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah.
9. Taisirul Fiqh al-Jami 'li lil Ikhtiyarat Fiqhiyyah al Islam Syaikhil Ibni Taymiyya, pages 408-414, Sheikh Dr. Ahmad al Muwafi.
10. Minhajus Salikin, 107, Sheikh Rahman as Sa'di.
11. And others.

[Copied from As-Sunnah magazines Edition (07-08) / Year X/1427/2006M. Publishers Foundation Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo-Solo Purwodadi Km.8 Selokaton Gondangrejo 57 183 Tel. 0271-858197 Fax 0271-858197]

Paying Zakah Fitr, Qurban and Aqiqah With Money

Shaykh Salih bin Fauzan Al-Fauzan

Shaykh Salih bin Fauzan Al-Fauzan were asked: How does the law give Fitr Zakat money worth, worth qurban and aqiqah animals to buy food or goats are slaughtered in other countries and distributed to the people faqir there?


الحمد لله وحده والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه وبعد:

Allah Almighty says:

وما آتاكم الرسول فخذوه وما نهاكم عنه فانتهوا

"What the Messenger to you, then accept it. And what he forbids you, then leave" [1].

Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

من عمل عملا ليس عليه أمرنا; فهو رد

"Whoever did the deed that no order from us, then the practice was rejected". [HR Imam al Bukhari]

At this time, there are some people who seek to change the worship of the provisions syar'i. In this case, there are many examples. For example, zakat Fitr. Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam ordered that the issue of food charity in a Muslim country living, at the end of Ramadan. Zakat was given to the needy people in the country [2]. Then there are those who give fatwa bolehnya give money instead of food. There is more to give fatwa bolehnya hand over the money to buy food in other countries are far from the country and distributed alms givers there. These include changing the form of worship of the provisions of Shari'ah.

Fitr Zakat has given time to remove it, the night of the feast day or two earlier, according to the scholars. So is (zakat Fitr) has a provision for paying local, ie in place of a Muslim spends months (in Ramadhan) is. In (share) charity, there are also entitled to receive specificity. Namely poor people in the country. And (Zakah Fitr) also have provisions of its kind, which is the staple food. Therefore, must be fulfilled these criteria. If not, then the charity that includes the right of worship and also can not release a person from the load.

Four priests who have agreed on the necessity of removing tithes in countries where the donor is, as long as there are people in the country are eligible. Hi-ah Kibaril Ulama (Scholars Institute for the Great) in Saudi Arabia also has issued a decree. This provision should be considered, and do not be swayed by appeals people to break them. Because a Muslim should be keen to rid itself of the burden and be careful for the sake of his religion. Similarly, (also with) all worship, all must be accomplished in accordance with the provisions of the type, timing and implementation. Should not change the type of worship that has disyari'atkan Allah Almighty to other types.

Another example, which is associated with fasting fidyah elderly and terminally ill, so it can not perform fasting. Almighty God requires them to feed one poor person a day instead of fasting. He said:

وعلى الذين يطيقونه, فدية طعام مسكين

"And must for serious people who run it (if they do not fast) ransom, (that) to feed a poor man". [3]

So also provide food in kaffarah problems, such as kafarah zihar (equating wife back to the mother's back), kaffarah due to the relationship of husband and wife during the day during Ramadan and kaffarat oath. So too does the issue of food for charity Fitr.

All kinds of worship should give food, not just by issuing money. Due to (pay the money) that included changing the worship of the type required. Because Allah Almighty says "the giving of food." Therefore, it must stick with it. Anyone who does not hold him, then he has changed the worship of the type required.

So also in al hadyu problems (penalties in the pilgrimage), sacrifice and aqiqah birth. At these devotions, the implementation is the need to slaughter cattle types are eligible, not just by spending money or giving Sadaqah worth the price, because it is religious slaughter. He said:

فصل لربك وانحر

"And be steadfast in prayer for your Lord, and berkurbanlah". [4]

He said:

قل إن صلاتي ونسكي ومحياي ومماتي لله رب العالمين

"Say:" Verily my prayers, ibadatku, my life and my death are for Allah, the Lord of hosts ". [5]

Eating meat is slaughtered, also menyedekahkannya is worship. He said:

فكلوا منها وأطعموا البائس الفقير

"So eat any part thereof, and (partly) eaten to give people more miserable poor". [6]

So it should not be and also not enough just to hand over money or bershadaqah worth the money, instead of slaughtering. Since this includes changing the worship of the type required by Allah Almighty. While this slaughter of animals must be slaughtered in a disyari'atkan by Allah Almighty.

Al hadyu (animals are awarded to Mecca. Granting this, there are times when for a foul, then the provision is called the Dam, while the offense still is not because his name Al hadyu) slaughtered in al Haram (Mecca). He said:

لكم فيها منافع إلى أجل مسمى ثم محلها إلى البيت العتيق

"Then where obliged (as well as the end of the period) is to kill it once it gets to the Baitul Atiq (House)". [7]

Allah Almighty says about the people who were dressed in ihram who brought al hadyu:

ولا تحلقوا رءوسكم حتى يبلغ الهدي محله

"And do not shave your head, before it got to where penyembelihannya qurban". [8]

While the problem qurban and aqiqah, then they are slaughtered in the country of the perpetrators and in his home, he ate and bershadaqah with him. Do not move to send the money to buy a par value of animals slaughtered in other countries, as expressed by some prosecutors who are just learning science or some ordinary people, with reasons in most countries (other) there orag poor people who need help.

We say, helping the Muslims who need assistance in any place ordered. However, the worship which God commanded to be done at a particular place, should not be moved to another place. Because of (something like) this is one form of worship that have been changed disyari'atkan Allah Almighty. They create anxiety in the community, so often ask for this problem.

The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam had sent al hadyu to be slaughtered in Mecca, when he sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam Muqim (live) in Medina [9], and he sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam and aqiqah qurban slaughtered at his home in Medina, not sent to Mecca, but better than Madina Mecca. And at Mecca are also many poor people, who sometimes need more help than poor people in Medina. Nevertheless, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam has adhered to the place of worship of God syari'atkan to implement it. He sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam did not kill al hadyu in Medina, and do not send qurban and aqiqah to Mecca. Rasulullah slaughtered each type in the space disyari'atkan.

Yes, why did not transmit abundant flesh from hadyut-tamattu hadyut-tathawwu `and`,-but not of animal origin, nor ransom from qurban to the country in need. However, penyembelihannya still done in place (area) that has been disyari'atkan.

Anyone who wants to help his brothers who are in need of assistance in other countries, then let him help her with the property, clothing and food, or anything useful. As for worship, then he should not be changed from time and place, (though) by reason of helping people in other places that need it. Compassion is not necessarily the (way) to change the din (religion) and worship.

Wa shallahu 'sla Nabiyyina Muhammad wa' alihi shahbihi wa wa sallam.

[Copied from As-Sunnah magazine X/1427/2006M 7-8/Tahun Edition. Publishers Foundation Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo-Solo Purwodadi Km.8 Selokaton Gondangrejo 57 183 Tel. 0271-858197 Fax 0271-858197]

Criteria for recipients of Zakah Gharimin

Cleric Abu Riyadh and stayed there Nurcholis bin Mursidi

Different economic status, is part of the reality of life that can not be denied. This condition should not interfere with the harmonious relations between individuals of different economic status, provided that each understands the rights and obligations. Because, they actually need each other; the poor need the rich, and vice versa. Besides, there is no guarantee that this condition will last forever. Sometimes it can turn one hundred eighty degrees, the poor rich man transformed into a collapsed while the rich become poor. This is another reason why the poor and the rich always need each other. Unfortunately, how many people do not understand, pretend not to know or do not want to know this problem. As a result, various problems emerged.

Islam as a religion rahmatan lil 'alamin governs the relationship between the rich and the poor, so interwoven affection among others. Zakat which Allah Almighty enjoined upon the rich and give to those who deserve it, is one of the way Islam governs the relationship between the rich and the poor. With this, the rich will realize that in no part of their wealth to the poor or can not afford. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala says:

"And the treasures they have the right to ask the poor and the poor who have no share (meaning the poor are not begging)". [Adz-Dzariyât/51: 19]

Among those eligible to receive alms from the rich man is al-gharim (person in debt). But this one zakat recipients must meet several criteria issued by the charity so that rich people are not well targeted and potentially fosters greed. Thus, the wisdom of zakat will be felt by all walks of life. Those entitled to receive, find it helpful and did not think to do a negative action .. While the rich feel calm and comfortable because it is implementing shariah correctly and will get a flood of prayers of the poor. Besides, she is negative regardless of the plan may be some people who had committed crimes under the pretext.

In defining al-gharim, the scholars' different. Some say, al-gharim are people who were in debt. There also are adding this definition to include the cause. Mujahid said the al-gharim rahimahullah is a person who has debts because his house burned, or swept his property, or to meet the needs of their families [1].

Ibn Athir rahimahullah added, al-gharim is the one who guarantees the repayment of debt to others, or people who go bankrupt in order to make ends meet, not to commit adultery or apply lavishly (tabdzîr) [2].

Based on this, scholars' specific criteria for determining fiqh al-gharim are eligible to receive zakat terms of the causes of bankruptcy or debt.

Broadly speaking, there are two types of debt or cause a person to be al-gharim:

A. Gharim limaslahati nafsihi (debt for the benefit or need for him)
2. Gharim li ishlâhi dzatil bain (for reconciling human debt, qabilah or tribe)

Both types of al-gharim above are entitled to receive zakat but with the additional requirement that the gharim linafsihi be in poor condition. As for the gharim li ishlâhi dzatil bain then be given Zakat though he was rich.

On this type of cleric al-gharim defining criteria are eligible to receive zakat, ie they are indebted for the beneficiaries themselves and their families, as people who go into debt for food, clothing, shelter or medical treatment and so on.

Al-Ba'li rahimahullah said, "Al-gharim are people who owe it to feed themselves and their families or to get dressed." [3]

Category also includes al-gharim this type are people affected by natural disaster or other catastrophe that resulted in his property out, for example: flood, earthquake, tsunami, fire, theft and so the result they are unable to provide for basic necessities. So that they include fuqara '(poor people). This is as the Lord the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam in a long hadith pieces of the Companions of Allaah Qabishah' anhu:

ورجل أصابته جائحة اجتاحت ماله فحلت له المسألة حتى يصيب قواما من عيش

"And the one that affected his property destroyed. Person is permitted to beg to get the treasure back to life". [4]

Is Debt Due expiation Or fidyah (Debt The Right Concerning Allah) Includes gharim Given the Zakat Eligible?
There are two opinions about gharim like this:

First: the opinion Ulama 'and Mâlikiyyah Hanafiyyah who said they were not entitled to receive alms from the treasury. Because debt is a debt assistance related to the (right) of humans, while the debt to Allah Almighty as an expiation or Zakat payment is delayed then it can not be taken from the zakat money.

Second: The views some scholars' Hanabilah, they allow the provision of treasury for zakat al-gharim of this type, with the argument that the debt to Allah Almighty is the most eligible debt to be paid.

Râjih opinion, wallahu knows best is the first opinion. Because some other expiation expiation has a substitute that is not necessarily the property, for example by fasting. If the person is unable to pay the expiation, the real grace of Allah Almighty is very broad. so for those who have debts and restore beniat undoubtedly Allah Almighty will cover qiamat day, then what about those who can not afford to pay an expiation? While he had intended to pay an expiation, but can not afford. Therefore not be given Zakat money to pay the expiation, the expiation. [5]

What If Someone Died In Case of Bankruptcy?
If someone dies leaving debts more than his estate. Whether zakat should be paid with the money?

In this issue Ulama 'different opinions, there is nothing prohibiting it and allow it. Prohibiting opinion is the opinion of scholars' Hanafiyyah and Hanabilah and one opinion of Imam Shafi'i rahimahullah. While that allow it is the opinion dirâjihkan Mâlikiyyah and Shaykh al-Islam ibn Taymiyyah may Allaah have mercy. This is a tattoo based on a hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari:

عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ما من مؤمن إلا وأنا أولى به في الدنيا والآخرة اقرءوا إن شئتم {النبي أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم} فأيما مؤمن مات وترك مالا فليرثه عصبته من كانوا ومن ترك دينا أو ضياعا فليأتني فأنا مولاه

"From Abu Huraira Allaah 'anmhu, the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam said," No one but a believer I have more right to it in the world and the hereafter, read the word of Allah Almighty (which means) "The Prophet's (should be) more important for believers than themselves "[6], then any believer who dies and leaves property to the heirs inherit his property. He who dies leaving a debt or missing items then let him come to me because I was his master ". [7]

Ibn Taymiyyah stated that the argument rahimahullah (foundation) expressed the opinion that deceased are included in the category of al-gharim stronger. Plus the opinion that the deceased refused to enter al-gharim not have a clear argument. [8]

Inter-tribal disputes often lead to endless wars and the victims are not small. This condition is sometimes move the hearts of those socially minded and generous to attempt to extinguish the flames of hostility with a mediator. Sometimes the efforts forced him to spend deep as it requires huge funds. Debt had to be taken in order to reach the lofty goal is to stop the fighting. People like this is called al-li gharim ishlahi dzâtil bayyin.

When describing the sense of al-li gharim ishlâhi dzâtil bayyin, Imam Nawawi rahimahullah in Kitabul Majmû 'states, "That is a debt to reconcile the dispute, as if it feared going battle between two tribes or two people who disagree, then the debt is used to extinguish the fire hostility [9].

Among al-gharim the second type are people who spend their wealth to help the brothers and sisters of the affected or disaster. Imam al Murdawai rahimahullah said, "If a man bear the loss of others due to their property destroyed or the robbery victim may receive money for her charity." [10]

According pandapat jumhur Ulama ', li gharim ishlâhi dzâtil bayyin may accept charity even though he was rich or can afford. Imam Ibn 'Abd al Bar t-Istidkâr in the book says, "The three priests are rahimahullah Imam Malik, Shafi'i rahimahullah, Ahmad bin Hanbal and their followers rahimahullah stated that gharim li ishlâhi dzâtil bayyin may take Zakat though he was rich." [11] Based on the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam:

لا تحل الصدقة لغني إلا لخمسة لغاز في سبيل الله أو لعامل عليها أو لغارم أو لرجل اشتراها بماله أو لرجل كان له جار مسكين فتصدق على المسكين فأهداها المسكين للغني

"Treasure alms (zakat) is not lawful for the rich but five groups, namely those who fight in the way of Allah Almighty, amil zakat, gharim (bankruptcy), a person who buys goods with their wealth zakat, or one that has a poor neighbor then he alms to him, then the poor is charity was presented to the rich ". [12]

Terms gharim May Receive Zakat
A. Muslim
Gharim entitled to receive zakat if he is Muslim, as well as other charity recipients. Ibn Mundhir rahimahullah said, "The Ulama 'have agreed that the zakat is not valid if given to an expert dhimma (non Muslims)." [13]

2. al-Faqr (Poor)
This requirement applies to gharim limaslahati nafsihi (for personal needs), while the li gharim ishlâhi dzâtil bayyin, this requirement does not apply. That is, he may accept charity even though he was rich.

3. Debt Not Due To vice
If the debt was due to sinners such as gambling, drinking The wine, do tabdzîr and wasteful, so he was not given zakat money. Imam Nawawi rahimahullah explains, "I have never found a science expert opinion that allow alms given to people who twisted the debt in order to commit adultery, before he repented, but the opinion of a small Syâfi'iyyah weak, such as al-Rafi Hanathi and ar- 'y, that they may be viewed as gharim. [14].

How Law of People Who Decaptitated usurious loans?
Riba is a great sin and immorality which has included many menalan victims. Because including immoral, then the usurious debt, it should not be given zakat to pay it off, unless you repent. However, for those who are forced into debt with usury system for basic necessities, like clothing or food boards, the treasury should give zakat. Martial law was measured as needed. [15]

4. Not Able to Find More Income
Scholars disagree on this issue. Syafi'iyah religious scholars and some Hanabilah allow the provision of charity to people who are still able to work. According to the author the book Abhâtsun fi Qadâyâz charity, the law is correct in this matter and that if he owed a lot of trouble at all to pay it off then he should accept charity even though he was still able to work. However, on the contrary, if the debt or the giver a little extra time to give the debtor should he not take charity, and trying to pay it off (its own). [16]

5. Not the descendants of Bani Hashim (the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi Relatives Descendants Wa Sallam)
Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said:

إن هذه الصدقات إنما هى أوساخ الناس وإنها لا تحل لمحمد ولا لآل محمد

"Verily, this charity is human waste [17], and it is not lawful for Muhammad sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam and also the family of Muhammad sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam '. [18]

6. It's time Maturity Redemption
Maturity is a requirement that disputed by the scholars'. Ibn Muflih rahimahullah argues, "The law is apparent from the hadeeth of Allaah Qabishah 'anhu, that should not take zakat gharim although not yet due." [19]

But Imam Nawawi stated that gharim rahimahullah not be given except after falling Tempo charity. [20]

Dr. Sulaiman al-Asqar first to confirm the opinion notes, treasury may be issued for gharim zakat, if the maturity to stay a few months or already in the year of maturity. If the tempo is still several years or more than one year is not entitled to receive zakat to pay off the debt, unless the condition of the person providing debtor in sickness or need. And Allaah knows best. [21]

7. Gharim Not Included In Mortgage Muzakki (one who tithe)
If gharim be in such wives Muzakki dependents or other relatives, then the alms given to these people is not valid. Because as if he spent the treasure for himself. Therefore, what can not be excluded is called zakat, but regarded as a living given by the head of household for the family. People who are included in Muzakki dependents are a wife, son and father and grandfather and his descendants up. [22]

Zakat from treasury granted to gharim the size of the debt to be repaid. Because the purpose of distributing alms to gharim was limited for this purpose.

Ibn Qudama rahimahullah said, "gharim given alms to cover its debts, although very much" [23]

Ibn Rushd rahimahullah, Mujtahid Bidâyatul book authors stated, "gharim given amount of zakat debt if the debt is not because immorality" [24]

In this case, two properties are often collected and gharim faqir on someone, then allowed him to receive alms for poverty and pay off the debt, so he got two rations. [25]

If we observe carefully, this perfect Islamic law proved to be the best solution in order to create economic stability of the people, in addition to the main intention is in order to draw closer to Allah Almighty and ukhuwah Islamiyah established among the Muslims.

Hopefully this short article can be useful for us and cultivate the spirit of charity not only in the holy month of Ramadan alone. And Allaah knows best

[Copied from As-Sunnah magazine edition, 04-05/Tahun XIV/1431/2010M. Publishers Foundation Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo-Solo Purwodadi Km.8 Selokaton Gondangrejo 57 183 Tel. 0271-761016]

Zakat Profession

Ad Da'imah Lajnah Al Li Al Buhuts Al Ilmiyah Wa Al Ifta

The rise of the thought of charity that is now developing a profession, would be a problem and a big question mark for the majority of professional workers. In many institutions, the profession zakat even been enacted. How does a review of the application of zakat this profession?

Here we present the reader, some of the fatwa on the charity of Fatawa Al Lajnah Ad Da'imah Al Li Al Buhuts Ilmiyah Wa Al Ifta '. Compiled by Shaykh Ahmad ibn Abdur Razaq Ad Duwaisy, Publisher Dar Al 'Ashimah, Riyadh KSA, Matter I, Year 1419 H/1998 M. XII/279-282.

In addition, to complement the presentation of this fatwa, we nukilkan also the opinion of Shaykh al-Albani Nashiruddin in the magazine Al Ashalah. May be useful. (Editors).


A. An employee, given his monthly salary is not fixed. Sometimes in a given month is less than it should be given, in others given more. Meanwhile, the salary received by the first time has reached the haul (one year). While some others do not meet the salary haul (one year). And he did not know the amount of salary (for sure) it receives each month. How does he menzakatkannya?

2. Another employee receives a monthly salary every month. At each time receiving a salary, he kept dilemarinya. He meets the needs and demands of the household spending of the money in the wardrobe mistress every day, or at adjacent times (often). But with the amount of money that is not fixed, as needed. How to measure haul (one year) of what's in the closet? And how also to issue a charity in a case like this? In fact, as already explained in advance, the process of fulfilling the salary (which is then stored as daily supplies), not everything has been running a year?

Because the first and second question has a meaning and there are also similar cases, the Standing Committee Da'imah (fatwa institution clerics in Saudi Arabia) deems it necessary to give a thorough answer, so faidahnya be evenly distributed.

Whoever has the money reaches nishab (hence the size of a certain amount of liabilities subject to zakat). Then have the other enhancements in the form of money at different times, and additional money was not coming from the first source of money and did not evolve from the first money. But the money from a separate income. Such as money received by an employee of his monthly salary, plus the money from an inheritance, gift or payment of the yard for example.

If he wants to meticulously count the right, like careful not to pay zakat to the right except according to the size of the property that must dizakatkan, then he should make a list of specific calculations for each of the acquisition of each field by counting the haul (one year) , since the first day to have it. Next he spend any amount of zakat, respectively, at each time it reaches haul (one year) since the date of ownership of the asset. (But remember nishab above requirements, pen).

But if he wants to take the way nice and loose and airy self fuqara to prefer the party and other groups receiving alms, zakat he remove it from all its combined cash, when it reaches haul (one year) calculated from the first nishab achieved from his money. This reward is greater, more lift position, further providing a sense of casualness and better maintain the rights of poor and needy, the entire class of recipients of zakat.

Whereas if the money that he remove excess of the amount (nishab) money that is perfect haulnya, calculated as the zakat money paid in advance for money that has not reached the haul.

وبالله التوفيق وصلى الله على نبينا محمد وآله وصحبه وسلم.

Lajnah DA'IMAH BUHUTS LI AL AL ​​AL ​​IFTA ILMIYAH WA '(Institute of Scientific Studies and Scholars for Fatwa). Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee: (Shaikh) Abdur Razaq Afifi. Member: (Sheikh) Abdullah bin Ghudayyan. Member: (Sheikh) Abdullah ibn Mani '.

FATWA NO. 1360

In connection with the question of salaries charity. Is it obligatory zakat when salary is received or when it is already underway haul (one year)?

It is no doubt, that among the types of assets that must dizakati is two currencies (gold and silver). And among the obligatory zakat requirement on the types of property like that, is perfect when it reaches haul. On this basis, the money earned from salaries to reach nishab, either of themselves or the amount of salary from the combined results of the other money, while already meet the haul, then it is obligatory for dizakatkan.

Zakat is not able to pay the zakat diqiyaskan crops. For haul requirements (one year) zakat is obligatory for the two currencies (gold and silver) is a clear requirement based on the texts. If the existing texts, it is no longer qiyas.

Based on that, it is not obligatory zakat for money from employees' salary prior to the haul.

وبالله التوفيق وصلى الله على نبينا محمد وآله وصحبه وسلم.

Lajnah DA'IMAH BUHUTS LI AL AL ​​AL ​​IFTA ILMIYAH WA '(Institute of Scientific Studies and Scholars for Fatwa). Chairman of the Standing Committee: (Shaikh) bin Abdul Aziz bin Baz Abdillah. Vice Chairman: (Shaikh) Abdur Razaq Afifi. Members: (Sheikh) Abdullah bin Ghudayyan. Members: (Sheikh) Abdullah ibn Mani '.

FATWA NO. 2192

If a Muslim becomes an employee or a worker who gets a monthly salary of a particular, but he had no other source of income. Then the purpose of a living for several months, sometimes spends his monthly salary. While at other times a few months remaining few are kept for the purposes of a sudden (unexpected). How do these people paying the zakat?

A Muslim who can collect some money from her monthly salary, or from other sources, may already meet the tithe long haul, if the money collected her reach nishab. Good (number nishab come) from the salary itself, or when combined with other money, or with the merchandise that must dizakati hers.

But when he pulled out before the money collected zakat meet her haul, with the intention of paying zakat in advance, then it is a good thing it Insha Allah.

وبالله التوفيق وصلى الله على نبينا محمد وآله وصحبه وسلم.

Lajnah DA'IMAH BUHUTS LI AL AL ​​AL ​​IFTA ILMIYAH WA '(Institute of Scientific Studies and Scholars for Fatwa). Chairman of the Standing Committee: (Shaikh) bin Abdul Aziz bin Baz Abdillah. Vice Chairman: (Shaikh) Abdur Razaq Afifi. Members: (Sheikh) Abdullah bin Ghudayyan. Members: (Sheikh) Abdullah bin Qu'ud.

Sheikh Al Albani FATWA

How can a Muslim menzakati property acquired from salary, wages, profits and property administration? Are treasures that combined with his other treasures? Then he took out zakat when each property is reached haul? Or did he spend zakat when he acquired the property if it has reached nishab, both of nishab property itself, or if combined with other property owned, without the requirement haul?

In this case, among scholars there are two opinions. In our opinion, the rajih (strong) is that every time he acquired additional property, then the additional property that incorporated the existing nishab him. (That is not calculated on any additional property haulnya respectively, pent.).
When it meets haul (one year) in nishab, he must remove the existing nishab zakat of additional property along the joint.

Not required each extra property combined with the subject property must meet their own haulnya. Opinions are not like this, containing a huge difficulty. Yet among the existing rules in Islam are:

وماجعل عليكم في الدين من حرج

"He (God) never laid upon you an hardship in religion". [Al-Hajj: 78].

Therefore, a person-especially if someone is having a lot of property or merchant-will have to record additional nishab every day: for example, today came to him for so much money. And it's done while waiting to turn one year ...... So onwards. Of course it will be very, very difficult.

[Translated freely from the magazine Al Ashalah no. 5/15 Dhu al-Hijjah 1413, under the rubric of questioning, pages 60-61]

[Copied from As-Sunnah magazine VII/1424H/2003M 06/Tahun Edition. Publishers Foundation Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo-Solo Purwodadi Km.8 Selokaton Gondangrejo 57 183 Tel. 0271-761016]

Taxes in Islam

Abu Ibrahim Muhammad Ali

Allaah does not allow people to each menzhalimi one another, God forbid acts firmly upon Him wrongdoers, also over His creatures. [1] Kezhaliman with all its varieties has spread and lasted from generation to generation from generation to generation, and this is one sign of the coming Day of Judgment as the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam once said.

ليأتين على النا س زمان لايبالي المرء بما أخذ المال أ من حلال أم من حرام

"It will come to man an age when men do not care where they get the treasure, of which halalkah or unlawful" [Al-Bukhari book Buyu: 7]

Among the forms are almost evenly kezhaliman in our homeland is the application of the tax system that is charged to the general public, especially the Muslims, on the grounds that the property be returned to welfare and needs together. For this reason, we will describe the problem in terms of tax law and some of the things pertaining to the tax, among them is the attitude of the Muslims to be obedient to the government on this issue. Hopefully useful.

In the Arabic term, known as tax العشر (Al-Usyr) [2] or المكس (Al-Max), or it could be called لضريبة (Adh-Dharibah), which means: "Charges are drawn from the people by the towing tax "[3]. Or at some point be called الخراج (Al-kharaj), but Al-kharaj used for levies related to the land in particular. [4]

While the pemungutnya called صاحب المكس (Shahibul Max) or العشار (Al-Asysyar).

As according to linguists, the tax is: "A payment made to the government to finance expenditures that do in terms menyelenggaraan services to the public interest" [5]

Among the kinds of taxes that we often encounter are:

- Land and Building Tax (PBB), the tax imposed terhapad land and land and buildings owned by someone.
- Income Tax (VAT), which is the tax imposed with respect to one's income.
- Value Added Tax (VAT)
- Goods and Services Tax
- Mewam Goods Sales Tax (PPnBM)
- Corporate Tax, the tax imposed on each company (joint venture) or other entity semisalnya.
- Tax Transit / Peron and so on.

THERE TAXES EARTH / kharaj (الخراج) IN ISLAM?
Imam Ibn Qudama rahimahullah in his book Al-Mughni (4/186-121) explains that the earth / land of the Muslims are divided into two kinds.

A. The acquired land from the infidel Muslims without war, as happened in Medina, Yemen and semisalnya. So for people who own land will be taxable kharaj / property taxes until they converted to Islam, and this law is the law as jizya, the tax that applies on the ground like yan applies only to those who still disbelieve it.

2. The acquired land of the Muslims from the infidels with the war, so that the heathen natives were driven and have no land, and be a waqf land for the Muslims (if the land is not divided for the Muslims). For the heathen natives and Muslims who want to live or cultivate the land, the land was required to pay rent because it really is waqf land that can not be sold and owned by the individual, and this does not mean paying taxes, but only rent the land.

Thus, it can be concluded that the tax on the time of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam never obligatory upon the Muslims, and the tax is only required for unbelievers only.

Islam has been described in the tax prohibition with clear arguments, either in general or a particular tax issue itself.

As for the argument in general, such as the word of God.

يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تأكلوا أموالكم بينكم بالباطل

"O ye who believe, do not eat each other neighbor's property in a way that vanity ...." [An-Nisa: 29]

In the above verse Allah forbids His servants ate each others property with roads that are not justified. And taxes is one way the vanity to take another property

In an authentic hadith that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said.

لا يحل مال امرئ مسلم إلا بطيب نفس منه

"No one's possessions Muslim halal except the willingness of the owner" [6]

The theorem in particular, there are some hadiths that explain the tax prohibition and threat to the pullers, among them that the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said.

إن صاحب المكس في النار

"In fact the perpetrator / tax collector (diadzab) in hell" [Reported by Ahmad 4/109, Abu Dawud book Al-Emirate: 7]

This hadith classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albani rahimahullah and he said: "Sanadnya good, the narrators are the narrators (used by) Bukhari-Muslim, except Ibn Lahi'ah, despite such, because of the saheeh hadeeth narrated it from Abu Lahi'ah is Qutayba bin Sa'id Al-Mishri ".

And the hadith is corroborated by other traditions, such as.

عن أبي الخير رضي الله عنه قال عرض مسلمة بن مخلد وكان أميرا على مصررو يفع بن ثابت رضي الله أن يوليه العشور فقال إني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول إن صاحب المكس في النار

"From Abu Khair Allaah 'anhu, he said:" Maslamah bin Makhlad (governor in the land of Egypt at that time) menawarkankan tax collection duties to Allaah ibn Thabit Ruwafi' anhu, he said: 'Behold the towing / tax collector (diadzab) in Hell "[Reported by Ahmad 4/143, Abu Dawud 2930]

Shaykh Al-Albani said rahimahullah: "(Since it is clear that the validity of the hadith narrated by Ibn Lahi'ah of Qutayba) then I'm set to move from the hadith Al-Jami'ah Da'eef book al-Sagheer to Sahih Al-Jami , and from the book At-Targhib Da'eef to Sahih At-Targhib "[7]

Creator of the hadiths which are also classed as saheeh by Dr Rabi Al-Madkhali hafidzahulllah in his book, Al-Awashim wal Qawashim it. 45

Imam Muslim narrated a hadith which tells execution by stoning for adultery law (a woman from Ghamid), after the woman decided to be stoned, Khalid bin Walid came Allaah 'anhu approached the woman by throwing stones at him, then the blood on her clothes Khalid , then Khalid angrily mencacinya, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said.

مهلا يا خالد فو الذي نفسي بيده لقد تابت توبة لو تابها صاحب مكس لغفر له ثم أمر بها فصلى عليها ودفنت

"Slow down, O Khalid. By the One that my soul is in His hands, indeed he has repented with repentance when towing / tax collector willing to repent (it seems) would be forgiven. Then the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam commanded (to put his body), so the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam menshalatinya, and was buried "[Reported by Muslim, 20/5 no. 1695, Ahmad 5/348 no. 16 605, Abu Dawud 4442, Baihaqi 4/18, 8/218, 221, View pedigree Ash-Saheehah it. 715-716]

Imam Nawawi rahimahullah in this hadith explains that there are some ibrah / the great wisdom of which was: "That the taxes including disobedience and evil as evil, including sin and to destroy (the culprit), it is because he would be prosecuted by a man with a lot of demands in the next later "[See: Sharh Saheeh Muslim, 11/202 by Imam Nawawi]

Imam Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi rahimahullah said in his book Al-Ijma Maratib (p. 121), and approved by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah may Allaah have mercy: "And they (the clergy) have agreed that the supervisor (guards) who were assigned to take the money fines (payable) on the streets, on the doors (gates) of the city, and what is (usually) collected from markets in the form of taxes on goods brought by people who are being passed or (goods carried) by the vendors (all of them) including a very large zhalim act, (the law) is unlawful and wicked. Except what they picked up from the Muslims in the name of the item they perjualbelikan zakat (alms trade) every year, and (unless) they're picking up from the experts harbi (infidels who fight Islam) or a dhimmi (unbelievers who must pay the jizya as security in Muslim countries), (ie) of the items they perjualbelikan for a tenth or a half, then in fact (the clergy) have beselisih about the proficiency level, (in part) requires states to take the opinion of each of it all, others refused to take the least of it all, except what has been agreed in a peace agreement with the experts who have been called dhimma and required only "[8]

Imam Abu Ja'far Ath-Thahawi rahimahullah in his book Sharh Al-Atsar Ma'ani (2/30-31), said that Al-Usyr obligations that have been removed by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam on the Muslims are the usual taxes levied by the ignorance ". Then he continued: "... this is very different from the obligation of zakat .." [9]

Another very clear difference between the tax and zakat of them.

A. Zakat is to give some property according to levels set by Allah for those who have a property that has to nishabynya [10]. While there is no tax provision is determined by the obvious exception penguasaa somewhere.

2. Zakat applicable to Muslims only, it is because zakat serves to purify the culprit, and it is not possible to say to the heathen [11] because the disbelievers will not be a saint malainkan must have faith first. While the tax applies to the infidels who dwell in the land of the Muslims rule

3. Are removed by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam about the withdrawal of one-tenth of the property taxes that ordinary human beings are drawn by the ignorance. As for charity, so he is not a tax, because charity is part of the property shall be drawn by the priest / leader and returned / given to those who qualify. [12].

4. Zakat is a form of Islamic law that cicontohkan by the Messenger of Allaah 'alaihi wa sallam. While the tax is a Sunnah of ignorance of people whose origins were usually collected by the kings of Arab or non Arab, and among them is the habit of taxing one-tenth of human merchandise through / over the power. [See Al-Amwal by Abu Ubaid Al-Qasim]

Salih's testimony Salafush ON THE TAX
A. Ibn Umar 'anhuma once asked if Umar Allaah' anhu had to collect taxes from the Muslims. He replied: "No, I never knew it" [Sharh Ma'anil Atsar 2/31]

2. Umar bin Abdul Aziz rahimahullah once wrote a letter to Adi bin Arthah, in which he said: "Remove from the man (the Muslims) Al-Sacred Mosque, Al-Maidah, and taxes. And (tax) is not just taxes only, but including the Al-Bukhs words that have been spoken by God.

ولا تبخسوا الناس أشياءهم ولا تعثوا في الأرض مفسدين

"... And do not harm / reduce human impacts on their rights, and do not do evil in the world to make mischief" [Hud: 85]

Then he continued: "Whoever gave zakat (to us), accept it, and whoever is not fulfilled, then it is enough that God will make calculations with it" [Ahkam dhimma Experts 1/331]

3. Imam Ahmad, may Allaah have mercy also forbid taxation of the Muslims, as quoted by Ibn Rajab, may Allaah have mercy in the book Jami'ul Uloom wal Hikam [13]

4. Imam Al-Jashshash Ahkamul rahimahullah said in his book the Quran (4/366): "What is excluded / removed by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam levy a tenth of the usual tax levied by the ignorance. As for charity, he is really not a tax. Zakat including a mandatory part of the property (for expenses) taken by the priest / leader (refundable for those who are entitled) "

5. Imam Al-Baghawi rahimahullah said in his book Sharh As-Sunnah (10/61): "What is meant by the term (صاحب المكس) Shahibul Max, is used to collect those taxes from the merchants who passed on their territory by giving the name of Al-Usyr (العشار). As for the officers in charge of collecting Sadaqah-Sadaqah or a duty levy tribute from the experts dhimma or who have had an agreement (with the Islamic government), then it does exist in Islamic law as long as they do not exceed the limits in that regard. If they exceed the limit then they are also sinners and wrongdoers do. And Allaah knows best.

6. Syaukani rahimahullah priest in his book, Nailul Authar (4/279) said: "The word Shahibul Max (صاحب المكس) is the tax collectors of the man without haq".

7. Shaykh Ibn Baz rahimahullah in his book, Ar-Ra'iy Huquq Ra'iyyah war, said: "The kemungkaran like tax collection, then we expect the government to review the (policy)".

Imam Ibn Hazm said rahimahullah in his book, Al-Muhalla (4/281): "Rich people in place of each have an obligation to help those homeless and destitute, and the government at the time was right to force rich people (to help poor, poor) if not upheld / paid zakat to the needy and poor .. "

Ibn Hazm rahimahullah postulated by the word of God.

وآت ذا القربى حقه والمسكين وابن السبيل

"And give to families who close their rights, to the poor, and people are on the way ...." [Al-Isra: 26]

In the above verse and semisalnya texts, such as Al-Qur'an Surat an-Nisa: 36, Muhammad: 42-44 and hadith which indicates that: "Who does not love someone else then he is not loved by God" [HR Muslim: 66], all indicate that people are homeless and destitute have a right to be accomplished by the rich. And whoever (among the wealthy see someone who is hungry and then not help him, then he will not be loved by God: [16]

When it became clear that the tax is a form of real kezhaliman, the question arises: "Is a Muslim reject and avoid the tax practice is running or vice versa?"

He replied.
Every Muslim must obey their leaders as long as it remains a leader in the category of Muslims and their leaders did not order any for disobedience. Indeed, taxes including real kezhaliman. However, do pemipimpin kezhaliman not make people's obedience to her autumn / off, even every Muslim should still adhere to the Muslim leader, for his orders not to disobedience.

Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam explained to the Companions of Allaah' anhum that will come at the end of time the leaders of the wrongdoers. Then he was asked about the attitude of the Muslims: "May the fight / rebel". Then the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said: "There should be! While they are still running the prayer "[15]

Even the leader of his people kezhaliman the property issue has been described by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam how should people react to it. In an authentic hadith, after the intestate to the Muslims to be always obedient to Allah, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa Sallam advised the Muslims to always hear and obey even if the leader is the leader of a slave (as he is Muslim). [16]

Described again in a long hadith, after the Messenger of Allaah 'alaihi wa sallam explained the coming of the zahlim pemimin hearted devils and the human body, Hudhayfah Allaah ibn al-Yaman' anhu asked about the attitudes of men as leaders meet like this. Then the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam replied.

اسمع وأطع وإن ضرب ظهرك ؤأخذ مالك

"Hear and patuhlah (your leader)! Although he hit back and take a (forced) treasure "[Reported by Muslim book of Al-Emirate: 1847]

Fadhilatusy Shaykh Salih Al-Fauzan hafidzahullah give a very precise reason for this issue. He said: "Against the leader at that worse consequences than simply wait for their kezhaliman. Be patient on their kezhaliman (punching and take our money) is a Awliyaa, but they are clearly against the larger madharatnya, such as would result in fragmentation of the unity of the Muslims, and facilitate control of the Muslim infidels (which was broken to unite and not) [17]

Among the sources of state revenue that has ever happened in the time of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa salam is.

A. Zakat, the duty of every Muslim who has property to reach nishabnya. In addition to the property owners are entitled to their own zakat and given to the needy, the authorities also have the right to withdraw charity from the Muslims who have wealth, the more so if they refuse, then zakat was collected by officers zakat (amil) assigned by the leaders , and distributed in accordance with the provisions laid down by Allah in the Qur'an At-Tawbah letter: 60. This can be seen in the presence of amil amil zakat, which was commissioned by the leaders of the Muslims who happen to good time of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa salam, or the next generation.

2. Inheritance is not divided up. In the science of inheritance (faraidh) there is discussion of property which is not divided. There are two opinions are famous among the experts faraidh. The first opinion, should be returned to their respective heirs tailored to their closeness to the deceased, unless one of the wives or husbands. The second opinion said that all property which is not divided / excess, then returned to the treasury / treasury. However, an excessive when the property can not be returned to their respective heirs, such as no one dies and the widow's only heir, the widow's got the right 1/6, and the rest, like it or not, should be returned to the Baitul mal. [18]

3. Jizya, the property / tribute taken from the infidels are allowed to live in Islamic countries as a guarantee of safety. [19]

4. Ghanimah and fai '. Ghanimah is property unbelievers (al-harbi) is controlled by the Muslims in the war. While fai 'is a treasure al-harbi infidels abandoned and occupied by the Muslims in the absence of war. Ghanimah distribution has been determined by Allah in the Qur'an Surat al-Anfal: 41, ie 4/5 for the forces of war while the fifth is left to Allah, His Messenger, Prophet relatives, the orphans, needy, and Ibn sabil. And its distribution through the treasury. While fai 'division as in Al-Qur'an Al-Hashr: 7, that is all for Allah, His Messenger, Prophet relatives, the orphans, needy, and Ibn sabil. And distribution (also) through the mall.

5. Kharaj, this has been explained in point: Is there a tax on land in Islam? ", Above.

6. Sadaqah tathawwu, that people contribute voluntarily to the country that used for the common good.

7. Mining and semisalnya.

Or of income, other income that can sustain the needs of the government budget, other than income by way of kezhaliman such as state-owned enterprises.

Before we end this paper, we would need to recall that poverty, weakness, successive disaster, defeat, humiliation, and others; among the biggest reason is none other than the hands of man himself. [Ar-Rum: 41]

Among the people there are amazed when they said the tax was unlawful and a real kezhaliman. They said the country would be impossible to run without taxes.

Then we can answer this: That God has promised for the people of the land who want faithful and devoted (ie by running the command and away from the ban), they will be guaranteed by the goodness of God to get their lives in the world, especially in the hereafter, as God said.

ولو أن أهل القرى آمنوا واتقوا لفتحنا عليهم بركات من السماء والأرض ولكن كذبوا فأخذناهم بما كانوا يكسبون

"If a resident of a country willing to believe and perform good deeds, We shall bestow the blessings they see themselves (abundant goodness) either from heaven or from earth, but they rejected (did not want to believe and perform good deeds), then we torture them because his actions" [Al -A'raf: 96]

Our reliance on the application of taxes, was one result of a breach of the above verse, so we are tortured by the tax itself. One of our evidence violates the above paragraph is how many among us who do not pay zakat zakat mainly mall. It is an offense. Not counting other violations, whether visible or vague.

If we truly want to believe and perform good deeds to execute all commands (including pay zakat, as appropriate) and stay away from all prohibitions (of which the tax burden off the top of the Muslims), Allah will give him the promise of blessings that come down from heaven and from earth .

Have not we seen some of the country dry of its natural conditions more barren, but when they ignore most of the commands of God, then they get what is promised by God in the form of blessings / goodness in abundance from the heavens and the earth, they can feel all the pleasures of the world. Conversely, how many countries are very strategic natural conditions for farming and is very fertile, but when people disbelieve in Allah and ignores most of his command, then the law God blessed them with the absence of the heavens and the earth they are, we see the rain often falls , lush green land, but they never felt the blessing tidk they expect. Allah knows best.

[Copied from the magazine Al-Furqan, Issue I, Year VI / Sha 'ban 1427/2006. Published By Lajnah Da'wa Al-Furqan Ma'had Al-Islami, Address: Ma'had Al-Furqan, Srowo Sidayu Gresik in East Java]

Zakat obligations and Urgency

Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz

Praise be to Allah and blessings on Muhammad and on the bay no more prophets after, his family and friends. Amma ba'du.

The motivation for writing this note is to advise and remind the obligation of zakat is underestimated by many Muslims. They are not out in accordance Shari'ah, but the problem is so great charity and its capacity as one of the five pillars of Islam, which can only erect buildings on it, based on the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam.

"That is: Islam is built on five cases: testify that none has the right to be worshiped God but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establish regular prayer and pay zakat, fasting Ramadan, and pilgrimage to the House" [This hadith has been agreed upon]

Obligation of zakat for Muslims is one of the most prominent achievements of Islam and its attention to the affairs of its adherents, because a lot of benefits and the needy need it.

First: Strengthening the bond of love between the rich and the poor, because the soul is destined to love who do good to him.

Second: Clean and purify the soul and keep him away from the stingy nature, as the Qur'an suggests this in his word.

"It means: Take alms from their wealth, the charity that you cleanse and purify them" [At-Tawbah: 103]

Third: Allowing a Muslim has a gentle nature and generous to people in need.

Fourth: Bring blessing, additional and replacement, as his word.

"Which means: And what items you spend, Allah will replace them, and He is the giver of sustenance in the best possible" [Saba: 39]

And the words of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam in the hadeeth.

"It means: Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala befirman, O son of Adam, spend (treasure), then I will give thee a living .."

And various other benefits.

There are threats that are very hard on people who miserly with his money, or fail to remove it. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala says.

والذين يكنزون الذهب والفضة ولا ينفقونها في سبيل الله فبشرهم بعذاب أليم يوم يحمى عليها في نار جهنم فتكوى بها جباههم وجنوبهم وظهورهم هذا ما كنزتم لأنفسكم فذوقوا ما كنتم تكنزون

"Which means: And those who keep the gold and silver and do not menafkahkannya in the way of Allah, then Tell them, (that they will get) a painful punishment, on the day of the gold and silver were heated in Jahannam Hell, and burned with their foreheads, stomach and back them (and said) to them, is that you store your things for yourselves, so taste now (due to) what you keep that "[At-Tawbah: 34-35]

Any property that zakat is not redeemable deposits, for which the owner will diadzab on Judgment Day, as indicated by the hadeeth of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam that he said.

"It means: Any person who has the gold and silver that do not fulfill the rights of property, when the Day of Judgment would soon be laid out for him the plates are made of fire, and she baked it in a Hell in Jahannam, then the stomach, both the forehead and the back iron with him. Every time feels cold then repeated again for him on a day-long affair 50,000 years until it was decided among the servants, then he will see his way, whether to heaven or to hell ".

Then the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa called the owners slam camels, cows and goats that do not fulfill their zakat. He reported that he would diadzab with it on the Day of Resurrection his wealth in the future.

It has been narrated with authentic from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam that he said.

"Meaning: Those who are given gifts by God Almighty, and he did not fulfill their zakat, (then) on the Day of Resurrection his wealth transformed into a snake male aqra '(a white head, because of the many toxins in the head) are foaming at the two corners mouth. The snake was worn (the neck) on the Day of Judgment. The snake was gripped by both jaws, and the snake said, 'I am your treasure, I was simpananmu ".

Then he read this verse:

ولا يحسبن الذين يبخلون بما آتاهم الله من فضله هو خيرا لهم بل هو شر لهم سيطوقون ما بخلوا به يوم القيامة ولله ميراث السماوات والأرض والله بما تعملون خبير

"Which means: And let not those hunks of the treasures that God has given to them as His gift was thought that it was good for their stinginess. Surely it is bad for their stinginess. Property that they bakhilkan worn around his neck that would later on the Day of Judgment. And to Allah belong all matters (that is) in heaven and on earth. And Allah knows what you do "[Ali-Imran: 180]

Zakat is obligatory on the four property types, namely: the earth in the form of grains and fruits, cattle, gold and silver as well as commercial goods.

The fourth type, there are certain nishab, which is less than that is not obligatory zakat.

Nishab grains and fruits are five wasaq. One wasaq is 60 sha 'in sha' the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam. So the size of the nishab with sha 'the Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam, in the form of dates, raisins, wheat, rice and the like is 300 sha 'with sha Prophet sallallaahu' alaihi wa sallam, that every one sha 'coverage equivalent to four medium-sized hands if his hands full.

Nishab cattle of camels, cows, goats, there is a clear breakdown in the saheeh ahaadeeth from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam. To find out more, for those interested, can ask the expert knowledge about it. Had it not been intended to summarize, we explained everything necessary to make it more useful.

Nishab mitsqal silver is 140, which measure the dirham Saudi Arabia is 56 riyals (silver). While gold is 20 mitsqal nishab, whose levels are in pounds (gold standard money) Saudi Arabia is 11.3 / 7 pounds Arabia.

Zakat is an obligation on both 2.5% for anyone who has the gold or silver that has been achieved nishabnya, either both or one of them and have even a year. Follow the principal capital and profits does not require new longer haul; as the result of livestock following the origin and does not require a new haul again, if home is one nishab.

Included in the category of gold and silver paper money is a human being employed in the present, both named dirhams, dinars, dollars or other names. If the value has reached nishab silver or gold and have even a year, then it must dizakati.

Included in the category of money is a special women's jewelry made of gold or silver. Once a year until nishab and even then must dizakati, though prepared to be used or borrowed, according to one of two scholarly opinion; by the generality of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam.

"It means: Every owner of gold or silver that are not performing their zakat, when the Day of Judgment would soon be laid for him the plates of the fire ..." until the end of the hadith.

Have been valid from the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam that he saw the hand of a woman two bracelets made of gold, then he asked, "Did you have to give zakat?" He replied,' Not yet '. He asks:

"Do you feel happy when God put you with them on Judgment Day, which is two bracelets made of fire? '. So he dropped them and said, 'Both to Allah and His Messenger "[Reported by Abu Daud and An-Nsa'i with sanad hasan]

Have been valid also from Umm Salamah Allaah 'anha that she wore jewelry made of gold, then he asked,' Messenger of Allah, is this mistress? "He said, 'Something that should last dizakati dizakati, then he is not a deposit". And other hadiths that convey the same to him.

As for commercial property, ie goods put up for sale, it is calculated at the end of the year and spent 2.5% zakat seilai either equal to the price, more or less, based on the hadith Samurah.

"Meaning: The Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam commanded us to remove our charity of the items prepared for sale" [Abu Dawood]

Included in the category of land was prepared to peddle copies, buildings, cars, water reservoirs, and other goods are put up for sale.

The building is put up for rent. Not for sale, then the zakat on the rent it, even if it has been a year. While the merchandise itself is no zakat, because it does not put up for sale.

Similarly, private cars and taxis, are not mandatory dizakati, if the car is not prepared to be traded. The car owner bought it just to wear. If the owner or otherwise have a rental car to get money to achieve a nishab, then he should menzakatinya if they have already fulfilled a year, whether the money he is prepared to make a living, to marry, to buy goods, pay debts, or other purposes; based on the generality syar'i arguments that show the obligation of zakat in a case like this.

Authentic scholarly opinion that the debt does not preclude the zakat, because as already mentioned.

Similarly, orphans and the lunatics must dizakati, according to scholars jumhur if they have already reached nishabnya and have even a year. Obligatory upon the trustees to spend their zakat with the intention of them at even-numbered year, based on the generality of the arguments. For example, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam Muadh Allaah in the hadeeth of' anhu, when it was sent to residents of Yemen.

"Which means: Verily Allah made it compulsory zakat on them taken from their rich and given to the poor".

Zakat is the right of Allah, may not give it to people who do not deserve it. Should not someone take the benefit for himself or reject harm, and not so well with the charity's property or the inevitable wake of ugliness. But obligatory upon every Muslim to give zakat to the right, because they deserve it, not for any other purpose, accompanied by an innocent and sincere for Allah, so it is different from the dependents and entitled to the reward and dressing better.

Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala has explains in the Qur'an about the class are eligible to receive zakat. He said.

إنما الصدقات للفقراء والمساكين والعاملين عليها والمؤلفة قلوبهم وفي الرقاب والغارمين وفي سبيل الله وابن السبيل فريضة من الله والله عليم حكيم

"Which means: Verily it is zakat-alms to poor people, poor people, officials, administrators zakat, the mu'allaf who persuaded her to (freeing) of slaves, those who owe, to the way of God and man who was on his way, as something that required determination Allah, and Allah is Knower, Wise "[At-Tawbah: 60]

This verse concludes with two names of God, the All-Knowing and Wise, as a warning from Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala to His servants that He knows about his servants; who among those eligible to receive zakat and who is not entitled accept it. He is Wise in the Shari'a and its provisions, so that he does not put anything except in their proper place, though most people do not know some secrets of wisdom, so that the servants of the syari'atNya feel at ease and pleased with the lesson.

Allah is the One who is sought, may He give us taufik and Muslims to understand His religion, to be honest in interacting with him, vying for what diridhaiNya, and saved from His wrath. Surely He is Hearing, Mahadekat. May God convey prayers and greetings to the servant and messenger, Muhammad and his family and his companions.

[Copied from the book Fatawa Az-Zakah, issue Fatwa Regarding Zakat Indonesia, Muhammad Al-Musnid Compiler, Translator Ahmad Syaikhu, Sag, Penebit Darul Haq, I Ramadhan 1424H Printed]

Leaving the threat of Zakat

Muslim cleric Abu Isma'il al-Atsari

Zakat is a religious obligation that is very well known, including one of the five pillars of Islam. Therefore, the zakat including dharuriyat (certain matters) in the religion of Islam. Whoever denies the obligation of zakat, he becomes an infidel and out of the religion of Islam. Unless the person has recently converted to Islam, so that ignorance of the laws of Islam terma'afkan. Or people that live in areas far from the scholars'.

God threatens harsh against those who leave the word zakat obligation:

ولا يحسبن الذين يبخلون بمآءاتاهم الله من فضله هو خيرا لهم بل هو شر لهم سيطوقون ما بخلوا به يوم القيامة ولله ميراث السماوات والأرض والله بما تعملون خبير

"And let not those who are miserly with the treasures that God has given them of His grace thought that was good for their stinginess. Actually stinginess that is bad for them. Bakhilkan treasure they would be worn around the neck later on the Day of Resurrection. And to Allah belong all legacy (existing) in the heavens and the earth. And Allah knows what you do "[Aal 'Imraan: 180].

Al Hafiz Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy say about the interpretation of this verse: Namely, do not ever think of that curmudgeon, that he treasures it would be beneficial for him. In fact it would harm the (business) religion, and possibly also in the (business) world. Then God tells of a place back on the Day of Resurrection his wealth, he says, "they bakhilkan Treasury will be worn around their necks, later on the Day of Resurrection." [Tafsir Ibn Kathir, the letter Ali Imran verse 180]
About the meaning of the verse "they bakhilkan property will be worn around their necks, later on the Day of Judgment" in the above described by the saheeh ahaadeeth. Among others, as below:

عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من آتاه الله مالا فلم يؤد زكاته مثل له ماله يوم القيامة شجاعا أقرع له زبيبتان يطوقه يوم القيامة ثم يأخذ بلهزمتيه يعني بشدقيه ثم يقول أنا مالك أنا كنزك ثم تلا (لا يحسبن الذين يبخلون) الآية

"From Abu Hurayrah, he said, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said," Whoever has been given by God, then he did not fulfill their zakat, on the Day of Resurrection his wealth made him into a snake male aqra' (the skin of the head loss due to raised her head a lot of toxins), the two corners of his mouth foaming. snake draped (the neck) on the Day of Resurrection. snake holds [1] with the two corners of her mouth, then the snake said, 'I am your treasure, I was simpananmu'. Later n he read, 'And let not those who think ... Al paragraph grabber.' "[Bukhari no. 1403]

On another hadith, the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said,

ولا صاحب كنز لا يفعل فيه حقه إلا جاء كنزه يوم القيامة شجاعا أقرع يتبعه فاتحا فاه فإذا أتاه فر منه فيناديه خذ كنزك الذي خبأته فأنا عنه غني فإذا رأى أن لا بد منه سلك يده في فيه فيقضمها قضم الفحل

"It is not the property owners who do not deposit their rights to him, except the mistress treasure will come to judgment as a male snake aqra 'to be followed by opening his mouth. If the snake had come to him, the property owner was away from her mistress. Then the serpent, called him," Take the treasure which thou hast simpananmu hide! I do not need it. "So when the property owner's view, that he could not avoid him, he put his hand into the mouth of the snake. So the snake to eat it as a male animal will eat." [Reported by Muslim, no. 988]

Thus the end of the trip deposit assets that are not redeemable zakat. Owners thought that their property will mengekalkannya or benefit to him. But it would be a means to torment him.

So God will preach the torments inflicted on the last day to people who do not tithe. His Word,

والذين يكنزون الذهب والفضة ولا ينفقونها في سبيل الله فبشرهم بعذاب أليم, يوم يحمى عليها في نار جهنم فتكوى بها جباههم وجنوبهم وظهورهم هذا ما كنزتم لأنفسكم فذوقوا ما كنتم تكنزون

"And those who keep the gold and silver and do not menafkahkannya in the way of Allah, then Tell them, (that they will get) a grievous penalty. On the day of the gold and silver were heated in Hell, and burnt their forehead, stomach and their backs (and said) to them: "This is that you store your things for yourselves, so taste now (due to) what you keep." [At Tawbah: 34.35].

The Word of God is described by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam with his words:

ما من صاحب ذهب ولا فضة لا يؤدي منها حقها إلا إذا كان يوم القيامة صفحت له صفائح من نار فأحمي عليها في نار جهنم فيكوى بها جنبه وجبينه وظهره كلما بردت أعيدت له في يوم كان مقداره خمسين ألف سنة حتى يقضى بين العباد فيرى سبيله إما إلى الجنة وإما إلى النار

"It is not the owner of gold and silver owners who do not fulfill their right (silver) from him (ie zakat), unless there has been a Day of Judgment (silver) plates made in hell, then heated in Hell, then baked his forehead, stomach and back . Each plate was cold, returned (heated in Jahannam) to (punish) them. (That was done on the day), a one-day size of 50 thousand years, so it was decided (punishment) among all the servants. Then he would see (or: will be demonstrated) way, it is likely to heaven, and the possibility of going to hell ". [Reported by Muslim, no. 9887, from Abu Hurayrah]

Indeed, the real treasure is the great test given by God to man. And man, when a property is abundant, most do not pass these exams.

Allah Almighty says,

واعلموا أنمآ أموالكم وأولادكم فتنة وأن الله عنده أجر عظيم

"And know that your possessions and your children is just as true in the trials and Allah is immense reward." [Al-Anfal: 28].

Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Nasir As rahimahullah Sa'di said: "As a servant-tested with assets belongings and her children, then the possibility of love for it will take putting the air-desires rather than fulfilling its mandate. God preached, that the property and the children just as a trial. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala to test His servants with them. And indeed both as a loan, which will be redeemable for (Allah) Who has been given, and will be returned to Him who had lent it. Verily in Allah there is immense reward. If you have reasonable and mind, then utamakanlah the great gift of pleasure rather than a small, temporary, and will perish. So a reasonable person would consider the matters and give priority to cases that deserve to take precedence over and over are entitled to precedence. [Tafsir Taisir Karimir Rahman, Surat al Anfal verse 28].

Among the examinations in the form of property, is to pay the zakat, for people who have been obliged to pay. Do not anyone think that the abundant treasures will be able to save him, if he is not submissive and obedient to his Creator in managing the property. He said

ولا تخزني يوم يبعثون, يوم لا ينفع مال ولا بنون, إلا من أتى الله بقلب سليم

"(The Prophet Ibrahim prayed :) And do not thou despise me on the day they are raised, (ie) on the property and the children of men are useless, except for the people to God with a pure heart". [Asy Syu'ara: 87-89].

So woe to that man neglected by his property and he thinks that his wealth would mengekalkannya.

ويل لكل همزة لمزة, الذي جمع مالا وعدده, يحسب أن ماله أخلده, كلا لينبذن في الحطمة

"Woe to every slanderer more detractors, who collect the treasure again count. He thinks that his wealth could mengekalkannya. Certainly not! Indeed he really would be thrown into which breaks to pieces". [Al Humazah :1-4]

Even the property it will not help one bit.

وأما من أوتي كتابه بشماله فيقول ياليتني لم أوت كتابيه, ولم أدر ماحسابيه, ياليتها كانت القاضية, مآأغنى عني ماليه, هلك عني سلطانيه,

"As for those who awarded him the book (record of charity) it from his left, he said:" O would that my book would not be me (this), and I do not know what to my reckoning. Oh, that death would solve everything, everything I never gave the benefit to me. Has lost power from me ". [Al Haqqah :25-29].

LAW NOT tithe
If we had known how great the obligation to tithe, then indeed the religion of Islam impose penalties against any person who leaves this zakat obligation. Muslims who have been obliged to tithe, but not fulfilled and does not believe in the obligation of zakat, then he is an apostate from the faith and become unbelievers. As if it still believes its obligations, then he has committed a great sin, but not infidels. The argument about this is the hadith that has been presented above. That people who do not tithe will be tortured until it was decided the punishment on the Day of Resurrection, then he will see his way to heaven or hell. If he is an infidel, then definitely not going to heaven.

Then the ruler of the Muslims can take property by force those who do not pay zakat, and half of his property as a punishment for his actions. Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam said,

في كل سائمة إبل في أربعين بنت لبون ولا يفرق إبل عن حسابها من أعطاها مؤتجرا قال ابن العلاء مؤتجرا بها فله أجرها ومن منعها فإنا آخذوها وشطر ماله عزمة من عزمات ربنا عز وجل ليس لآل محمد منها شيء

"In the grazing camels of every 40 of the tail, (zakat form) ibnatu labun [2]. It should not be separated from the calculation of camel. Whoever gave it (zakat) to seek reward, so he got his reward. And whoever held it, then surely we will take it and half his property, as liabilities of the obligations of our Rabb. not lawful for Muhammad's family something from him (zakat). " [Reported by Abu Dawud; Nasai; Ahmad; dihasankan by Shaykh al-Albani in Saheeh Al Jami'us Sagheer, no. 4265.]

When will all the Muslims to realize, that the property is a consignment, they should use as provided by the owner? Later on will be taken by Him!? May Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala guide us always on top of his ways.

[Copied from As-Sunnah magazine VII/1424H/2003M 06/Tahun Edition. Publishers Foundation Lajnah Istiqomah Surakarta, Jl. Solo-Solo Purwodadi Km.8 Selokaton Gondangrejo 57 183 Tel. 0271-761016]


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